poorest region in portugal

Using this data, Pereira (2010) and Rodrigues, Figueiras and Junqueira (2012) find that poverty and inequality exhibit significantly different levels and patterns across the Portuguese NUTS regions. A more comprehensive analysis of these asymmetries involves the graphic analysis of the income distributions by degree of urbanisation and identification of their main characteristics. Recent papers, like Eurostat (2016) and Weziak-Bialowolska (2016), use the variable degree of urbanisation to analyse poverty and social exclusion in EU countries. However, for ease of plotting and comparison of the three estimated income densities, incomes above 40,000/year are truncated in Figure 6, thus avoiding a full-length plot of the right tail of the distribution. Desigualdades econmicas em Portugal. Source: Eurostat, EU-SILC, 2016. /* ]]> */. The EU-SILC degree of urbanisation variable divides all local administrative units (in Portugal: concelhos) into three categories, which are compatible with NUTS and ensure geographical continuity[4]. Copyright 2022 talesoftravellingsisters.com. Each table is divided into three sections: the 1st investigates poverty by age group, the 2nd by household type, and the 3rd by employment status (individuals aged 18+). Table 5 Distribution of the Population that are Poor, Portugal, 2016, in %, Source: Authors calculations using anonymised EU-SILC 2017 microdata. The main reason for this omission is the lack of data at regional level in the EU-SILC. Rodrigues, C. F., & Andrade, I. Furthermore, Figure 4 indicates a relatively stable income inequality[6], with an overall, variation that never exceeded 1 pp. The latter reveal how the lower rural pensions are less effective at relieving poverty than in the cities and suburbs, which record much lower proportions of retired poor. Why should this be the case? The short answer to the title of the paper Does location matter? is an unequivocal Yes. Among women, it is the older women who have a higher rate compared to other age groups (22.2% in 2020). Rudolf is also a skilled outdoorsman, and can survive in almost any environment. Eurostat social indicators for the European community. The calculation of the poverty intensity uncovers this distinction through the quantification of the relative distance between each income and the poverty line or, equivalently, by calculating the proportion of resources each individual requires to stop being poor. Rodrigues, C. F. (2014). In practice, the equivalised income of each household member is calculated by dividing the net total household income by its size expressed in equivalent adult numbers. borrow saharan countries sub tapping markets capital africa international Portugal crime rate & statistics for 2018 was 0.79, a 6.92% increase from 2017. This means that, for example, the estimated distributions can have more than one mode, fatter or thinner tails, or be more or less asymmetric. India has a GDP per capita of $7,200 as of 2017, while in Portugal, the GDP per capita is $30,500 as of 2017. Conversely, Eurostats material deprivation indicators are highest in the cities, although it is arguable whether they mostly reflect actual situations, higher expectations, or even the inadequacy of the indicators themselves to reflect specific regional issues. The three categories are: I. It is necessary to promote information campaigns on what poverty is and ways to fight it. It is important to note that the poverty or social exclusion rate combines two indicators (poverty rate and very low per capita work intensity) calculated using information of the income reference year with one indicator (severe material deprivation rate) that uses the information of the survey year. Source: Authors calculations using anonymised EU-SILC microdata, 2012-17. The last section of Tables 4 and 5 addresses the relationship between degree of urbanisation and employment status of individuals aged 18+. Powered by, Revista da Associao Portuguesa de Sociologia, Chamada para Artigos | Aberta em Permanncia. Notas Econmicas, 35, 20-39. Still, additional caution is needed in the analysis of these indicators because poverty and low work intensity measures are based on the 2016 incomes, material deprivation on the households perceptions in 2017, and the poverty and social exclusion rate (summarising all three, as discussed above) combines information from 2016 and 2017. It is defined as the difference between the median equivalised income of the individuals that are poor and the value of the poverty threshold, expressed as a percentage of the same threshold. We also acknowledge constructive comments from two anonymous reviewers. In 2018, the risk of poverty or social exclusion continued to reach 21.6% of the population in Portugal. Gis, E. (2016). EAPN Europe Staff. (2017). But in Portugal, the poverty-stricken area of Cova da Moura, which sits on the edge of Lisbon, the countrys capital, people live destitute lives. The social portrait also shows an unequal country, with the Azores remaining the region with the highest rate of poverty risk (28.5%), the Algarve and the North have the highest rate of severe material deprivation (6.7%), while the highest salaries are centred in the coastal region, especially in the metropolitan area of Lisbon, Centre and North. The existence of different poverty profiles according to location is also investigated. Again, the analysis of the incidence indicator can be complemented by a measure of its intensity: the material deprivation intensity is defined as the average number of items the deprived individuals are actually deprived of. After the 2008 recession, Portugal did not progress economically compared to the other countries around the world. [6]Rodrigues, Figueiras and Junqueira (2016) find that the average income inequality as measured by the Gini coefficient remained relatively stable during the crisis. Starting with the equivalised income, Table 1 shows how its level and distribution are affected by the degree of urbanisation. Western Europe is one of the wealthiest regions in the world and it is hard to find slums there. Moreover, during 2014-16, when the national poverty rate fell by about 1.2 pp, the fall in the city areas was smaller than in the others, revealing longer lasting effects of the crisis in the most urbanised areas. Contextos territoriais diferentes fazem a diferena no risco de pobreza em Portugal?. Despite improvements, low-income families have poorer housing conditions, worse health, and difficulty accessing health care. Unemployment is one of the main causes of poverty in Portugal. Figure 2 Poverty Incidence, Portugal, 2011-16 For example, the 10% poorest individuals living in the cities earn about 349/month, nonetheless 12% higher than the about 311 earned by those living in the countryside. Pereira, E. (2010). Portugal has inflation of 20% and unemployment of more than 10%. Rudolf Meyer loves to travel. INE. The sharp decrease in the incomes of households living in the cities, discussed in Figure 1, naturally led to an increase in their poverty intensity, which increased almost 20%, from 14.6% in 2011 to 18.1% in 2013. function GTranslateFireEvent(element,event){try{if(document.createEventObject){var evt=document.createEventObject();element.fireEvent('on'+event,evt)}else{var evt=document.createEvent('HTMLEvents');evt.initEvent(event,true,true);element.dispatchEvent(evt)}}catch(e){}}function doGTranslate(lang_pair){if(lang_pair.value)lang_pair=lang_pair.value;if(lang_pair=='')return;var lang=lang_pair.split('|')[1];var teCombo;var sel=document.getElementsByTagName('select');for(var i=0;i
Eurostat Statistical explained. Inequality and poverty in Portugal: Does location matter? Since the 1970s, the area has become home to some 6,000 people. In 2017, according to the EU-SILC results, 2.4 million Portuguese lived in poverty or social exclusion, 43% of them in the cities, 26% in suburbs, and 31% in rural areas. Thus, the value of the equivalised adult income is the same for each household member, irrespective of whether the individual is an adult or a child. Given a poverty threshold of 400 euros and two individuals with equivalised incomes of 300 euros and 100 euros, respectively, both of them are classified as poor, but the economic vulnerability of the latter is much higher than that of the first individual. Madrid is the financial capital of Spain, and one of the most important financial centres in Europe. At the other end of the distribution, the 10% urban wealthiest earn about 1861/month, more than 1.5 times what their rural counterparts earn, at about 1212/month. There is no simple answer and further research is needed, but the current results point to a more traditional poverty profile of the elderly and inactive population, which is more prevalent in the rural areas, and to a more modern and urban profile, linked to high unemployment and extended households with children. London: Chapman & Hall. Both profiles co-exist, but with variable incidence, in all three area types, thus creating an additional problem in the effective identification of the poverty and social exclusion dimensions and in the designing of social policies targeting poverty and promoting social inclusion. The lack of monetary resources is a determinant factor in the evaluation of the living conditions of individuals and households but does not encapsulate all circumstances that can lead to social exclusion. How do these Portuguese results compare with those of the other EU countries? This dissimilar evolution of the poverty rate according to the degree of urbanisation is reflected in the regional distribution of the population living in poverty, as shown in Figure 3. At the start of the period, about 40% of the Portuguese poor lived in rural areas but, by 2016, this proportion had dropped to about 1/3. Using this classification, in 2017, 4.5 million Portuguese lived in cities, corresponding to 43.6% of the population, 3.1 million, corresponding to 30.2%, lived in towns and suburbs (here-after suburbs), and 2.7 million, or 26.3%, lived in rural areas. This indicator measures the disconnection (or non-inclusion) of the individuals from the labour market, rather than unemployment. Concerning the elderly, the report points out that the at-risk-of-poverty rate of 17.5% is 2.3% above the national average. The aim of this section is to analyse in greater detail how the location of the Portuguese households shapes the income distribution and impacts on the poverty incidence and social exclusion. Under the original, 1950s Cold War-era definition of the term, any list of First World countries would have included NATO members the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Turkey, and West Germany. They also reveal the disparity in the impact of the economic crisis by degree of urbanisation: households living in the more densely populated areas were more affected, with larger decreases in their equivalised income and correspondingly larger increases in their poverty rate. Portugals relatively low productivity, the key driver of economic success, is the main reason. In cities and suburbs, it is the households with children that have higher poverty rates (20.9% and 16.4%, respectively) whilst in the rural areas it is those without children (23.9%). Email: carlosfr@iseg.ulisboa.pt.

However, the highest poverty or social exclusion rate is recorded in the rural areas, 27.5%, 7.8 pp and 4.3 pp higher than that in suburbs and cities, respectively. The nations of Europe have a fair Human Development Index (HDI).

Portugal was the worlds richest country when its colonial empire in Asia, Africa, and South America was at its peak. [CDATA[ */ B-1000 Brussels (Belgium) In addition to preliminary data for 2020, the Social Balance reflects the social state of the country in 2019, a year in which the at-risk-of-poverty rate decreased by 1%, to 16.2%, compared to 2018. Therefore, all results are extrapolated to a population of more than 4.1 million households and 10.3 million individuals. Table 2 Distribution of the Population by Adult Equivalent Income Deciles and Degree of Urbanisation, In 2018, the unemployment rate dropped down to 7.9 percent. This paper is organised as follows: section 2 discusses the main indicators of poverty and social exclusion plus the concept of degree of urbanisation as defined in the EU-SILC; section 3 analyses the evolution of these indicators by degree of urbanisation in Portugal in 2011-16 and briefly compares it with that in other EU countries; section 4 analysis the (latest available) EU-SILC of 2016 in greater detail; and finally section 5 summarises the key results and discusses their impact on the social policies that aim to reduce poverty and social inequality. Towns and suburbs (also: intermediate area, small urban area) defined as clusters of contiguous one square km grid cells with a minimum population of 5,000 and minimum density of 300 inhabitants per square km; III. Luxemburg. The poverty and social exclusion indicators used in this paper are calculated using the data collected by annual surveys which focus on the analysis of monetary income. keyValue[2].split('/')[2] : null;} Finally, this paper set out to investigate if these distinct poverty levels and responses to the economic crisis across degree of urbanisation can, in turn, be translated into two clear-cut different urban and rural households poverty profiles. In A. C. Michalos (Ed. Almost 28% of the population living in the cities are in the top two (wealthiest) income deciles, but only 10.4% of the rural dwellers are in the same position. The crucial reason for this omission is the lack of data at regional level in the Portuguese component of the Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC),[2]the official data source used to calculate the main statistical poverty indicators in the EU countries. It follows specific EU legislation and defines a harmonised system to produce EU wide statistics on poverty, deprivation and social exclusion. The EU-SILC includes a degree of urbanisation variable since its start in 2004, but the methodology used to construct its various categories was substantially altered in 2012. N.B. A razo principal para esta omisso prende-se com a ausncia de informao regional na principal fonte de informao estatstica que serve de base a esses estudos, o EU-SILC. Keywords: degree of urbanisation, poverty, inequality, social exclusion, Portugal. Portugal Poverty headcount ratio at $1.9 PPP a day In 2018, poverty rate for Portugal was 0.3 %. Answering this question is essential for a more accurate identification of the target populations and improve the design of the public policies aimed at fighting poverty and social exclusion, and is pursued in Tables 4 and 5. Degree of urbanisation classification 2011 revision. Baltimore/ London: World Bank/Johns Hopkins University Press. Households with dependent childrenSingle parentsElderly living aloneWorking poorThe unemployed and inactive people, Tel:+351 22 542 08 00Fax: +351 22 540 3250E-mail: geral (@) eapn.ptWebsite: www.eapn.pt, Boulevard Bischoffsheim 11 However, the material deprivation indicators identify the cities households as the most vulnerable, both in terms of its incidence and intensity. The analysis of household surveys A microeconometric approach to development policy. The main estimated indicator of the populations poverty, or of any of its sub-groups, is the poverty rate[3]. The final estimated results are obtained using both household and individual weights, calibrated by region, household size, age, and gender. As this rate is dominated by monetary poverty, it is the (top) rural poverty rate of 22.9% that explains this outcome. Rural area (also thinly-populated area) defined as the remnant area. The results indicate that the average adult equivalised income in the cities is 35-40% higher than that in the rural areas, further influenced by a higher concentration of the highest incomes (and income inequality) in the urban areas; poverty incidence and social exclusion is higher in the countryside, with a rate 4.3 pp and 7.8 pp above that of cities and suburbs, respectively. make 4.2 times more money. In some cases, working is not enough to escape poverty since one in 10 employed people are considered poor. and Centre for Applied Mathematics and Economics (CEMAPRE) of Universidade de Lisboa. ), Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research (pp. The EU-SILC adopts the concept of net monetary income. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. Weziak-Bialowolska, D. (2016). The primary aim of this paper is to investigate how important the location of the households is to the analysis of income distribution, inequality and poverty using the EU-SILC data. As of 2020, Portugals population is 10.2 million people. Its gross national product is $2,000 or so a person, a bit higher than that of Panama. The latter represent almost a quarter of the rural population, compared with a national proportion of 21.1%, while a smaller proportion of children and youngsters (aged 0-17) live in the countryside. Children (0 to 17 years old) and older people (over 65 years old) have a higher at-risk-of-poverty rate than the national average, with 19.1% and 17.5%, respectively, in 2019, according to the report. Finally, rural households are characterised by lower work intensity, but this result may be substantially affected by demographics: a lower percentage (less than 70%) of the rural population is of working age (18-59 years old excluding students) compared to the rest of the country. The effect of the degree of urbanisation on the income distribution inequality can also be analysed by estimating the proportion of the population living in each area type by decile of the global income distribution, as reported in Table 2. This analysis uses the latest available anonymised EU-SILC microdata of 2017 (2016 monetary data). Social indicators research, 125, 451-479. 40.6% of poor individuals live in households where people work full time, the report finds. Rua Miguel Lupi 20, 1249-078 Lisboa, Portugal. These results reinforce the conclusion that, whichever methodology is used, household incomes are higher in the most urbanised area, and that there is a far greater proportion of urban households in the top income deciles than elsewhere. Germany is one of the worlds richest countries, with a nominal GDP of around 5 trillion US dollars.Countries by GDP (nominal), 17 most beautiful places in Portugal you have to visit. Data de submisso: 04/09/2018 | Data de aceitao: 11/12/2018. The at-risk-of-poverty rate increased by two percentage points,according to information in the report Portugal, Social Balance 2021 A portrait of the country and a pandemic year, presented on Tuesday, based on preliminary data from the Income and Living Conditions Survey (ICOR). O estudo realizado mostra que a localizao efectivamente conta: o rendimento equivalente mdio nas zonas mais urbanizadas 35-40% mais elevado que o das zonas predominantemente rurais, onde os nveis de pobreza e excluso social so mais elevados. The definition of the concept of income is the starting point in the evaluation of the resources available to each household. The adoption of a multidimensional poverty indicator, the poverty or social exclusion rate, represents a substantial conceptual step up from a one-dimensional indicator, the poverty rate, which is based solely on the income distribution. Email para submisso de artigos sociologiaonline@aps.pt, N Registo 125823 na Entidade Reguladora para a Comunicao Social, APS - Todos os direitos reservados. Another important result is a preliminary evaluation of the crisis effects on the living conditions of individuals living in different area types. DOI: 10.2785/594675. Source: Authors calculations using anonymised EU-SILC microdata, 2012-17. The views expressed herein can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Commission. Next, the equivalised adult income is obtained from the household net monetary income using the OECD modified equivalence scale. [2]This will be amended in the 2018 wave, when the EU-SILC will start including statistically significant information at NUT2 level. Rodrigues, C. F., Figueiras, R., & Junqueira, V. (2012). Whilst 60.4% of the rural population are in the 1st-5th deciles, that proportion drops to 50.6% in the suburbs and 43.4% in the cities. Although their weight in the total rural population is small (6.1% of the total), their social vulnerability requires a specific approach. Cities (also: densely populated area, large urban area) defined as contiguous one square km grid cells with a minimum population of 50,000 and minimum density of 1,500 inhabitants per square km; II. In fact, in 2011-13, the Gini of the cities household incomes fell slightly, whereas that of both suburbs and rural households recorded a small increase. [Shutterstock / NeydtStock], Print Email Facebook Twitter LinkedIn WhatsApp Telegram. The rural population remained relatively immune to this increase in monetary poverty, suggesting that the main factors driving urban and rural poverty are different and specific to the characteristics of the households living in these area types. Because this wealth was not used to develop domestic industrial infrastructure, however, Portugal gradually became one of western Europes poorest countries in the 19th and 20th centuries. N.B. The Portuguese component of the EU-SILC aims to obtain results for all individuals residing in the Portuguese territory in the reference period. Low wages, high costs The cost of housing, energy, food, and many electronic goods is as high if not higher than in other European countries. Their Gini is consistently above 35%, whereas the rural values are below 31%. Where Are The Oldest Historical Remains In Spain? Rodrigues, C. F., Figueiras, R., & Junqueira, V. (2016). Source: Authors calculations using anonymised EU-SILC microdata, 2012-17. The poverty and social exclusion indicators estimated in Table 3 using the EU-SILC 2017 data naturally reflect the differences in level and distribution of income across the degrees of urbanisation already discussed, particularly those derived directly from the household incomes. A possible explanation for this difference is the large rise in unemployment in the cities due to the economic crisis. However, they demonstrate that inequality indicators that are more sensitive to the extremes of the income distribution detect a significant increase in income inequality in the 2010-14 period. These differences in the poverty incidence by degree of urbanisation are transferred, but in reverse order, to the inequality of the income distribution, as measured by the Gini coefficient. A first insight into the asymmetry of the equivalised income distribution is given by its different percentiles by area type. Portugal, 2016, in %. Source: Authors calculations using anonymised EU-SILC 2017 microdata. It is defined as the proportion of the population whose adult equivalised income is below the poverty threshold (or poverty line) which, in turn, is defined as 60% of the median equivalised income. The evolution of the real disposable equivalised income by degree of urbanisation in 2011-16 is shown in Figure 1. Urban Europe Statistics on cities, towns and suburbs. Density estimation for statistics and data analysis. Figure 3 Distribution of the Poor Population by Degree of Urbanisation, Portugal, 2011-16 Lisbon: Instituto Nacional de Estatstica. (2018). Figure 2 describes the monetary poverty incidence by degree of urbanisation in 2011-16. The particularly high poverty rate of rural one-person households (36.2%) cannot be interpreted separately from the age group analysis, with 2/3 of these single individuals aged 65+. https://doi.org/10.30553/sociologiaonline.2019.19.1, Entidade Reguladora para a Comunicao Social. In contrast, there are proportionally less poor children and young adults living in the rural areas (15%) than in the more urban areas (21-22%). Hes an avid mountaineer, and has climbed some of the most challenging peaks on Earth. : The 3rd section of the table only includes individuals aged 18+. Furthermore, the analysis is always denoted to 2011-16 because the main variables used in the study of poverty and inequality are based on the income of the previous (not current) year. Throughout this period, the highest poverty incidence is recorded in the rural areas, with a rate always above 20% and staggeringly 4-7% above the national rate. It is defined as the monetary income received by the household and each of its members individually from work (employee wages and self-employment earnings), other private income (capital, property and private transfers), pensions, and other social transfers, all net of taxes and social security payments. A critical evaluation of these indicators in a Portuguese context can be found in Rodrigues and Andrade (2012) and Rodrigues (2014). Abstract: The most recent studies on inequality, poverty and social exclusion in Portugal do not explore their regional variations. Silverman, B. W. (1986). Source: Authors calculations using anonymised EU-SILC microdata, 2012-17. Resumo: Os estudos mais recentes sobre desigualdade, pobreza e excluso social em Portugal no tm tido em conta a dimenso espacial nas suas anlises. It suggests a greater impact on the urban areas, with a fall in the real equivalised cities household income of 10.3% between 2011-13, about 2.8 pp above that in the rural areas. Living in the big city or in the countryside Does it make you poorer? Fax: + Between 2011 and 2013, the national average real equivalised income fell 6.5% in real terms, but the fall in the incomes of the city dwellers was higher, 10.3%, than that of those living in either suburbs, 3.2%, or rural areas, 3.7%. Demonstra-se igualmente que a profunda crise econmica ocorrida em Portugal aps 2010 teve um impacto superior nas reas mais urbanas. It is also shown that the deep economic crisis that occurred in Portugal after 2010 had a greater impact on the most urban areas. What Is There To Do On All Saints Day In Barcelona? Figure 1 Real Disposable Equivalised Income, Portugal, 2011-16 in euros/year and 2016 prices (1997). However, this concept of material deprivation is not without criticism, in particular because it weighs equally all selected items. Hes been to all seven continents, and he has a particular interest in visiting the more remote and dangerous parts of the world.
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