onion thrips management

Adult densities were higher in the reflective mulch on weeks 2 and 3 but higher in the white mulch on weeks 6 and 7 (Figure 2A). Plastic mulches are used in vegetable production for weed suppression [17,18], soil moisture retention [19,20], reduced soil erosion, modulation of soil temperatures [21,22], and pest management [23,24]. 19962022 Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California Regents of the University of California unless otherwise noted. Damon S.J., Groves R.L., Havey M.J. Numbers of onion leaves also were counted weekly to calculate thrips density per leaf. For example, T. tabaci is managed nearly exclusively with insecticides in organic systems. We also hypothesized that bulb yield would be greatest following management strategies that were most effective against T. tabaci. Chemical: Apply insecticides each year as soon as thresholds (see above) have been exceeded to target the insects before they can reach protected areas (e.g., the insides cabbage heads and onion necks) where insecticides cannot easily penetrate. ; data curation, L.I. Lu F.M. Symptoms and Effects:In general, onion thrips prefer tight spaces and cause severe damage on plants that produce tightly packed leaves. Using Cultural Practices to Reduce Bacterial Bulb Decay in Onions. When foliage is severely damaged, the entire field takes on a silvery appearance. Highest order significant effects of the interactions of mulch cultivar (A), cultivar biopesticide (B,D), and mulch by biopesticide (C) on mean (SE) proportion of large onion bulbs (diameter >7.3 cm) in 2018 (A,B) and 2019 (C,D) in Geneva, New York, USA. Similar to the results in 2018, Bradley and B5336AxB5351C had greater proportions of large bulbs than Rossa di Milano (Figure S4E), and the insecticide-treated plots had greater proportions of large bulbs than the untreated control (Figure S4F). The mean bulb yield (metric tons/ha) model was fit to a Gaussian distribution and residuals were evaluated for normality. Our study indicates that biopesticides continue to be the most consistently effective tactic for managing T. tabaci in organic onions. Additionally, some of the botanical extracts may be more available and affordable in parts of the world where onions are grown, such as the United States and Canada [60]. Additionally, non-chemical strategies also can help minimize adverse side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial organisms, human health, and the environment. Several botanical extracts also have been evaluated for T. tabaci control in onions. Bradford B.Z., Chapman S.A., Groves R.L. Scout weekly to determine if populations are increasing. Evaluating combinations of bioinsecticides and adjuvants for managing Thrips tabaci (thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onion production systems. ; funding acquisition, B.A.N. thrips The standard errors at some time points are small and may appear behind the point marker. The Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment and UMass Extension are equal opportunity providers and employers, United States Department of Agriculture cooperating. Thrips also vector Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviradae, Tospovirus spp. Nymphs (immature thrips) resemble adults, but they are smaller and lack wings. Yield was significantly higher in the spinosad + neem oil-treated plots compared to the untreated control (Figure 3B). Larva stages tend to congregate around the newest leaves of the plant. The interaction of mulch biopesticide also was significant (Table S1). Stop the Rot! Unlike conventional onion production where many insecticides in several different Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) classes are available [1,2], organic growers have fewer products allowable by the USDA Standard Organic Practices guidelines [16]. When using foliar sprays, direct the sprays down into the center of the plants to maximize penetration into protected areas. In contrast, onion thrips lack these hairs, and their antennae are 7-segmented. Although reflective mulches may not consistently reduce T. tabaci infestations or improve onion yield in New York, there is a possibility that they may reduce Iris Yellow Spot Virus (IYSV), which is transmitted by T. tabaci and can be an economically devastating problem in many onion-producing regions in the United States [10,66]. Densities of adult T. tabaci were lower in 2018 than in 2019 (season total mean ( SE) of 0.67 0.02 adults/leaf in 2018 vs. 1.74 0.11 adults/leaf in 2019). The main effects of cultivar and biopesticide were also significant while mulch type was not (Table S2). Adults lay eggs singly in the epidermis, nymphs feed on leaves, and pupation occurs in the soil. Onions (Allium cepa L.) were irrigated when necessary to keep the soil moist [53]. For example, the organophosphates have a group number of 1B; insecticides with a 1B group number should be alternated with insecticides that have a group number other than 1B. Poole, UC Cooperative Extension Los Angeles County, Identifying Pests of Onion and Garlic and Their Damage, IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). Chaney (emeritus), UC Cooperative Extension Monterey County, R.L.

Razzak M.A., Seal D.R. Integrated management tactics for. Efficacy for thrips control in onion and garlic in California is not known; however, this product has effectively reduced thrips in California strawberries. Nault B.A., Shelton A.M. Impact of insecticide efficacy on developing action thresholds for pest management: A case study of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion.

When >30% plants in the experimental area had naturally lodged, onions were pulled from the soil and allowed to cure in the field for two weeks prior to harvest.

Contact your local Extension office for information on disability accommodations. While a combination of the semi-glossy cultivar Rossa di Milano and the biopesticide treatment spinosad + neem oil significantly reduced thrips densities, reflective mulch had little impact on thrips densities. Practice good field sanitation at the end of the season. If you find three thrips per onion leaf, consider chemical treatments. Kritzman A., Lampel M., Raccah B., Gera A. Relationship between onion thrips (. Do not rotate with spinetoram, as these insecticides have the same mode of action. Adult densities were higher in the reflective mulch on week 1 and higher in the white mulch on weeks 2, 5, and 6 (Figure 1A). Grower adoption of insecticide resistance management practices increase with extension-based program. Finally, all three main effects significantly impacted larval densities (Table S1). This result is consistent with the hypothesis that as the plant canopy shades the reflective mulch, the mulch becomes less effective. Silver mulches have improved yields of squash [25], peppers [28], and tomatoes [30]. An integrated approach for managing T. tabaci in onion is crucial due to the lack of available active ingredients that successfully reduce T. tabaci populations and the development of insecticide resistance in organic production systems. Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) is one of the most economically important insect pests of onion (Allium cepa L.) worldwide [1,2]. Thrips may migrate to onions when these crops are cut or harvested. The first two thrips nymphal stages feed on plants. Sample at least five plants from four separate areas of the field. Contact the State Center Directors Office if you have concerns related to discrimination, 413-545-4800 or see ag.umass.edu/civil-rights-information. Lacewing larvae, pirate bugs and predatory thrips are important natural enemies. The proportion of large bulbs in all cultivars treated with spinosad + neem oil was greater than those in the same cultivars in untreated plots, but proportions of large bulbs in B5336AxB5351C and Bradley, regardless of whether they received a biopesticide, were greater than those in Rossa di Milano with or without biopesticide (Figure 4B). These structures are best seen through a compound microscope at 400x. Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci Lindeman) is a major pest in organic onion production and effective integrated pest management strategies are lacking. Thus, in this study, we examined a multipronged approach to determine the most effective combination of integrated management tactics for T. tabaci in onion. Frank D.L., Liburd O.E. Larval densities in Rossa di Milano in the reflective mulch were lower than all cultivars in the white mulch early in the season (weeks 1 and 2, Table 3). Scouting:Thrips populations can develop very rapidly. Evaluation of Foliar Insecticides for the Control of Onion Thrips in Dry-Bulb Onion in Wisconsin, 2019. DEC recertification credits will be offered (2.0 credits in categories 10, 1a, 23; 1.75 credits in category 24). Restricted entry interval (REI) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Reflective mulch reduced densities on certain dates in both years compared to white mulch, but the largest and most consistent reduction only occurred in 2019. The site is secure. Spinetoram (Radiant, Corteva Agriscience, Indianapolis, IN, USA), spinosads conventional counterpart, is arguably one of the most effective active ingredients for managing T. tabaci in conventional onion production throughout the northern US [1,2,49]. ; supervision, B.A.N. COMMENTS: Consider applying when thrips have reached 30 per plant; do not use as rescue treatment. Ultraviolet (UV) reflective mulches have become popular in the production of various crops for their ability to reduce insect pest pressure [25,26,27,28], including thrips. Natwick (emeritus), UC Cooperative Extension Imperial County, S.B. SpinosadA case study: An example from a natural products discovery programme. Many thanks to R. S. Harding, K. Damann, N. Hesler, L. Sellers, E. Equinozzi, M. Kelly, M. Clark, E. Moretti, A. Leach, D. Doeblin, K. Regan, C. Bowden, S. Chapman, A. Klein, S. Murphy, K. Straight and I. Yanuzzi, and to Francoise Vermeylen (Department of Statistics, Cornell University) who consulted on statistical analysis. Their wings have only a single, central vein and are fringed with long hairs. Onions in the reflective mulch had lower mean season number of adults compared to onions in the white mulch (Figure S1B). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, https://www.mdpi.com/2075-4450/12/3/207/s1, https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid=3f34f4c22f9aa8e6d9864cc2683cea02&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title07/7cfr205_main_02.tpl, Open pollinated population with semi-glossy foliage from Johnnys Selected Seeds, Winslow, ME, Experimental hybrid with semi-glossy foliage developed by MJH, Corteva Agriscience, Indianapolis, IN + Certis USA, LLC, Columbia, MD. Effect of plastic mulch on the abundance of Thrips palmi Karny (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and yield of jalapeno pepper in south Florida. Also, use sufficient water, as well as a spray additive, to help the insecticide penetrate. Significant effects include the interactions of date mulch type (A) and date cultivar (B) biopesticide in 2018 (A) and 2019 (B). Civil Rights and Non-Discrimination Information, UMass Research and Education Center Farms, Soil and Plant Nutrient Testing Laboratory, Water Testing / Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Conservation Assessment Prioritization System (CAPS), Extension Risk Management/Crop Insurance Education, North American Aquatic Connectivity Collaborative, Agriculture & Commercial Horticulture Resources. Management-chemical control: COMMERCIAL USE. The authors would like to thank the Cornell University Farm and Research Unit at Cornell AgriTech for their assistance with land preparation and maintenance. However, the proportion of large bulbs produced in B5336AxB5351C grown on white mulch was significantly greater than those in Rossa di Milano grown on reflective mulch, but not when Rossa di Milano was grown on white mulch (Figure 4A).

Kramer-Wilson K., Cranshaw W. Onion thrips control, foliar trial 2, 1997. Onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) biology, ecology, and management in onion production systems. In some cases, the REI exceeds the PHI. Thrips thrive in hot and dry conditions and are usually more damaging in areas where these climatic conditions prevail for most of the production season. Sprays of the Entrust formulation of spinosad, azadirachtin, and entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana are also acceptable for use on organically certified crops. Nault B.A., Huseth A.S., Smith E.A. The application of the biopesticide had the most significant reduction in thrips densities and increase in yield. The error terms for the split-split-plot design were included as random variables (block date, block date mulch, and block date mulch cultivar). Onions can tolerate higher numbers of thrips closer to harvest. May be applied through sprinkler irrigation (see supplemental label), but level of pest control may be lower as a result. Semi-glossy cultivars must have additional properties that make them acceptable replacements for thrips-susceptible cultivars. The authors declare no conflict of interest. Rossa di Milano had lower densities of adult thrips compared to Bradley in weeks 2 through 5 only, and B5336AxB5351C was not different from either cultivar all season (Figure 1B). Conceptualization, B.A.N., M.J.H., and L.I. Malik M.F., Nawaz M., Haffez Z. Efficacy of Synthetic Insecticide and Botanical Infusions Against Onion Thrips in Balochistan, Pakistan-I. Otherwise, populations might exceed levels that can be controlled adequately. The new PMC design is here! Alternate use of at least two insecticide active ingredients to minimize development of insecticide-resistant thrips. Leach A., Reiners S., Nault B. Count the number of adults plus nymphs per plant and note number of leaves per plant to determine the average number per leaf. Onion seeds were planted in potting mix (Pro-Mix PG Organik, Premier Horticulture, Inc., Quakertown, PA, USA) and fertilized via fertigation once per week as a foliar feed with a 2-3-1 nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium (N-P-K) fertilizer at 11.3 mL/L per 10,000 onion transplants (Liquid #3, The Fertrell Company, Bainbridge, PA, USA). Mohan S.K., Molenaar N.D. Powdery mildew caused by Leveillula taurica on glossy leaf genotypes of onion in Idaho. This research was funded by United States Department of Agriculture National Institute of Food and Agricultures Organic Agriculture Research and Extension Initiative (OREI), grant number 2017-02467. Cultural: Remove plant debris from gardens (and commercial fields) as well as any areas surrounding a location where you will be growing onions or other susceptible vegetables. Onions that have a more circular leaf structure and that have glossier foliage tend to be less prone to damage. Means with asterisks (*) or different letters are significantly different at = 0.05 using Tukeys LSD post hoc test. Emerging Insect Pests in the Pacific Northwest, Brown Marmorated Stink Bug: An Emerging Threat to Pacific Northwest Agriculture, Spotted-wing Drosophila: An Emerging Berry and Stone Fruit Pest, How to Reduce Bee Poisoning from Pesticides, Horticultural, Landscape, and Ornamental Crops, Field Characteristics of Fruit-Tree-Attacking Spider Mites in the Pacific Northwest, Pests of Cabbage and Mustard Grown for Seed, Pests of Rutabaga and Turnip Grown for Seed, Biology and Control of the Garden Symphylan, Bean, Dry Cultivar Resistance to Bean Common Mosaic, Grape (Vitis spp.) Spinosad was the most effective biopesticide for reducing T. tabaci densities and improving bulb yield in New York and Wisconsin [46,47,48,55]. Details regarding onion thrips sampling are stated below. ; writingreview and editing, B.A.N., L.I., and M.J.H. Their feeding may lead to leaf scarring, which is most serious on green onions. The experimental design was a split-split-plot with 12 treatments (2 mulches 3 cultivars 2 insecticides) arranged in a randomized complete block design with six replicates (blocks, 72 total plots). See University of Wisconsin Garden Facts HXT1139,Impatiens Necrotic Spot,for details on this latter virus. Multiple insecticide resistance in onion thrips populations from Western USA. Effect of mulching on soil and plant water status, and the growth and yield of wheat (. Onions in sprayed plots had lower larval densities than untreated plots throughout the season (Figure 2D). One potential reason for the lower yield in Rossa di Milano is that it simply has a lower yield potential than Bradley and such a comparison is not meaningful. For the repeated measures analysis, date Date was modeled using a repeated measures structure when analyzing thrips densities and was included as a fixed effect in interaction with all the above listed variables. While resistance to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides has not been evaluated in California, it has been documented in other states and is suspected in California. Means with different letters within a row are significantly different at = 0.05 using Tukeys LSD post hoc test. Diaz-Montano J., Fuchs M., Nault B.A., Fail J., Shelton A.M. Onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): A global pest of increasing concern in onion. This method accounts for the size of the onion plant; however, the reliability of the method has not yet been evaluated in California. Agricultural Marketing Service United States Standards for Grades of Bermuda-Granex-Grano Type Onions. The beds were fitted with one line of drip irrigation down the center of the beds. and B.A.N. PMC legacy view Thompson G.D., Dutton R., Sparks T.C. Highest order significant effects of cultivar (A), biopesticide (B), and the interaction of cultivar biopesticide (C) on total mean (SE) marketable onion yield (metric tons per ha) in 2018 (A,B) and 2019 (C) in Geneva, New York, USA. However, natural enemies are susceptible to broad-spectrum insecticide sprays such as pyrethroids, and may not be reliable or effective in fields where broad-spectrum insecticides have been used. Nagata T., Almeida A.C.L., Resende R.d.O., de vila A.C. Management of T. tabaci on onion relies on the use of insecticides in both conventional and organic production systems. Evaluation of foliar insecticides for the control of onion thrips in dry-bulb onion, 2018. The site was in the process of transitioning to USDA-certified organic land, so virtually all practices followed USDA National Organic Program standards [16]. We hypothesized that reflective mulch combined with a semi-glossy cultivar and a biopesticide program would maximize onion thrips control. The application of a tank mix of spinosad + neem oil was highly effective and consistent for T. tabaci management. [60] and Khaliq et al. and M.J.H. Thrips tabaci has shown affinity toward certain types of onion phenotypes. ; visualization, L.I. Before and B.A.N.

Onions in plots sprayed with spinosad + neem oil had fewer larvae compared with the untreated control (Figure S3F). Year 2019: The interaction of mulch biopesticide had significant impacts on the proportion of large bulbs (Table S2). An economic threshold has not yet been developed for thrips, but an action threshold of 30 thrips per plant mid-season (lower for very young plants and higher for larger, mature plants) has been used for making successful pesticide application decisions for dry bulb, fresh market, and drying onions.

Brown B., Gallandt E.R. And remember to always use a surfactant with your insecticide sprays to improve the level of thrips control. Thorough coverage is essential for control, as most thrips feed in protected areas of the plant. Relative Disease Susceptibility and Sensitivity to Sulfur, Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)-Tomato Varietal Resistance to Fusarium Wilt and/or Crown and Root Rot, Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)-Varietal Resistance, Diagnosis and Management of Phytophthora Diseases, APHIS List of Regulated Hosts and Plants Proven or Associated with Phytophthora ramorum, Plants Resistant or Susceptible to Armillaria Root Rot, Verticillium Wilt in the Pacific Northwest, Plants Resistant or Susceptible to Verticillium Wilt, Plants Susceptible to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Potential Impact of Cyanobacteria on Crop Plants, Management of the Cyanobacterium Nostoc in Horticultural Nurseries, Care and Maintenance of Wood Shingle and Shake Roofs, Winter Injury of Landscape Plants in the Pacific Northwest, Recognizing Sapsucker Damage on your Trees, Key to Nutrient Deficiencies in Vegetable Crops, Key to Nutrient Deficiencies of Deciduous Fruit and Nuts, Current Status of Biological Weed Control Agents in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, Biological Control Agents and Their Roles, Restricted-use Herbicides in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, Testing for and Deactivating Herbicide Residues, Herbicide Effectiveness on Weeds in Grass Seed Crops, Dry Bean East of the Cascades - Phaseolus spp. Nault B.A., Huseth A.S. When to Scout for Squash Bugs about navigating our updated article layout. Hoepting C., Klotzbach K., Reid J., Gugino B. A threshold of 20 thrips per plant mid-year (lower for very young plants and higher for larger mature plants) has been used successfully for dry bulb fresh market and drying onions.
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