hand planing rough cut lumber

This may take awhile, depending on how wide and thick your board is, and how sharp your saw teeth are. Third, the finished surface of my carefully worked board has a touch of handwork about it, it is in fact not as flat as a machine could make it. Board thicknesses are always listed as X/4. A 4/4 board is 4 by 1/4 in., or 1 in. Last year I was looking at a beautiful six foot long mahogany board which had a slight cross-curvature, it was 24 inches wide and had been aged in my shop for nine years so I knew it was stable by then. Much old furniture was done in this way, by leaving the grain open and un-cluttered with wood powder. My current belt sander just broke on me right in the middle of refinishing my dads deck. French workers used forged holdfasts, so maybe the boy accidently trapped his hand under a hold fast or hit it with a mallet? He lives on a small farm in Earlysville, Virginia with his wife and four children, and builds furniture and teaches woodworking classes in his workshop. Now let me go back to my original project of hand-planing out a wide mahogany board.The board I had on my worktable was six feet long, five fourths thickness, with about an eighth inch of longitudinal curve and just a little twist. Ive always used the FEE system Face, Edge, Ends At this point it was time to smooth out the small highs which remained, so I went at it with a Stanley #4, first sharpening the blade on the belt sander to a nice even edge without the roll you often get with a stone, and polishing it on my hard-felt wheel with abrasive rough stick. Kudos! I found your post about hand planing enormously helpful as research for a story I am writing about a 17th century French boy whos truing up warped boards for a primitive fort. I find a lot of evidence that people are resawing with a bandsaw, a few who resaw by hand, some people buy wood cut to thickness.

. Their larger brother is the Fore Plane (the Trying plane in the UK English terminology), which runs pretty near to 18 inches in length, of which the Stanley #6 is a good example. So here is a case where you might consider going back to the old-fashioned time-proven method of planing down your work by hand. Sight the board to find any bows. Browse our traditional woodworking clothes to show off your cool hobby! All that remains is two ends that are square to the faces and edges.

Tough it up.

And if this process of squaring lumber with woodworking hand tools seems too overwhelming for you, then feel free to checkout our tutorial on squaring lumber with power tools (here). But I still use the straight edge and winding sticks to measure my progress: You should now have two perfect faces and two perfect edges. Thanks for the article. Jointer Planes are the longest members of the family, they generally run from 22 to 24 inches in the iron models, Stanleys #7 and the two inch longer #8 are good examples. rosewood studio woodworking unplugged

I suggest taking a 3 ft. piece of hardwood, perhaps 1 1/4 thick and 3 inches wide, and cutting out on the table saw a half inch deep slot for a half inch wide blade and its locking wedge. ins.dataset.adChannel=cid;if(ffid==2){ins.dataset.fullWidthResponsive='true';} 16 Cross Cut Panel Saw, Vintage Millers Falls Miter box and miter saw, Staedtler Mars 780 Technical Mechanical Pencil, https://woodandshop.com/colonial-williamsburg-hay-cabinet-shop-tutorial-resaw-wide-boards/, https://woodandshop.com/which-hand-tools-do-you-need-for-traditional-woodworking/, How to Choose Wood Lumber for Woodworking | 7 Easy Steps, How to Make a Mortise and Tenon Joint with Woodworking Hand Tools, Privacy Policy, Rules, Terms & Conditions. Required fields are marked *. Thank you for your consideration. The main difference is how you hold the hand plane. For larger decks (or to save some time), you could rent or purchase a floor sander, but youd still have to do the detail work between planks, etc. Even though I have a nice tool buying guide (here), Im still often asked for links to the tools that I use in my videos, so here they are (note that you dont need all these tools): Its very helpful to have a very sturdy woodworking workbench because four squaring lumber requires a lot of hand planing, which will rock a smaller DIY workbench. We are no longer supporting IE (Internet Explorer) as we strive to provide site experiences for browsers that support new web standards and security practices. (Rabbit out a section of the board to allow for the width of wood on the plane beside the blade edge. First, sight down the board to find out if theres a bow.

thicker than equivalent S4S wood from the home center, allowing you to flatten and straighten it. WI or O1 (water or oil hardening) stock, and read my other section on hardening and tempering steel. This is a good time to cut off checked ends or knots.

Just make sure your try square is actually square.

They have a wood base onto which is screwed a nice cast-iron plate which has a blade holder and screw adjustment about the same as on an all-iron plane. :). Every year we hear of cases of allergic reactions to food Make sure that your boards reference edge is pressed up against the miter box fence, adjust the miter box to cut a 90 degree cut (use your pencil line to ensure the miter box is set correctly), and saw away! Im sorry, but I dont quite understand what youre asking. 7 Stanley Plane or No. A rust-free polished bed and fence will give you much better results. Silicone and grout are actually two different things, although you can sometimes use silicone in place of grout.

If you find that you have too much wood to remove (and dont want to spend all day hand planing down to the line with your finely set jointer plane) you have two alternate options: (1) Use a jack plane or scrubbing plane to quickly remove most of the waste wood, and then finish down to the pencil line with a jointer plane: (2) If you have too much waste, even for a jack plane to remove, then use a rip panel saw to get close to your line, then finish up with a jointer plane: CAUTION: If your boards width is critical, then make certain to NOT get too close to your line with the jack plane or rip saw. ): Your shavings will still be somewhat heavy in this step, but not nearly as heavy as with the scrubbing plane / jack plane. I want to mention one kind of plane which is hard to find, which you can make for yourself without much trouble or cost. wood 6 Fore Plane, a Stanley No. There is much to be learned about the way certain wood radiates light, and I suggest experimenting with scraped as compared with sanded surfaces to see what you can find out. The shirts all look great but i really like the red or brown hand plane shirts. (I dont recommend truing up an iron plane on a surface grinder, because the plane inverted is a devil of a thing to chuck up solidly. What is Pyrography? Hi Joshua, If your board is too wide to fit in a miter box (or if you dont have a miter box and miter saw), then use a cross cut panel saw (above) to saw close to your line. Just refer back to step 4 for a review on how to avoid valleys while hand planing: Periodically use a small combination square or try square to check for the 90 degree angle along the entire edge of the board. Build a Backyard Living Room with These 6 DIY Projects, 9 Best Home Improvement Projects Under $500, Do Not Sell My Personal Information CA Residents. There are many other brands, all virtually identical in use and performance, dont be a snob and ignore a nice, clean Craftsman from the 50s, a Sargent or an un-named interloper.

Use a longer fore plane (No.

If that doesnt do it, youll just have to sand your way out of the jam. Was all this work with the mahogany board worth while? While the electrical power route is more economical for a commercial woodworking workshop, I sometimes prefer the safety, exercise, quiet, and historical feeling that comes from dimensioning my boards by hand. (The Smooth is often nothing more than a dull-bladed tool thrown in the carpenters tote box for use on a sticky door edge.). Place the board in your workbench vise, with the reference face toward you. I had no idea that it existed. 6) or jointer plane (No. 7 or No. Siliconized Grout for Tile. But if you go this route, you may need to use shims if your board is in really bad shape. Clever, these old plane makers! ins.dataset.adChannel=cid;if(ffid==2){ins.dataset.fullWidthResponsive='true';} And with practice, squaring lumber by hand wont take all that longask your ancestors. If there are several parts coming from the same board, draw yourself a paper sketch to remind you of the layout. arced) iron (i.e.

Now let me pause for a moment a run through a description of the various types and sizes of planes which one can find at hand, and then return to my experience with my mahogany plank. I made a long variety of a Transitional with a long carefully prepared board into a shooting-board-plane, moving the handle to the side at an angle, and it serves a harpsichord maker perfectly for edging the sections of his soundboard for gluing. This jack plane is going to be doing rough work, so dont worry about tuning it extensively. To hurry and build a bunch of stuff, or to enjoy yourself? Because of how boards twist, the high corners will usually be opposite each other. Again turned the board around and cross-sliced at the reverse angle. You wont need all of these hand planes, just a jack plane, a smoothing plane, a jointer plane, and maybe a block plane.

Now that your reference face and both edges are flat and square to each other, use a marking gauge to scribe your final board thickness. Place your straight edge on the high corners to verify how much wood still needs to be removed with your wood plane.

Im going to pour through all of these forums as I am sure that I will be able to glean much! If you are right handed put the board on the right so you can press it hard against the board, or vice versa. Great idea, Joshua having a giveaway to bring woodworkers to this site.

Many rural woodworkers, including pros, buy all their wood online. Really, 17th century, building a fort.

What is the best type of sander for sanding a deck? By Joshua Farnsworth | Updated Mar 01, 2022. This article is especially helpful.

Thatll allow you to remove any checks on the ends of the boards or snipe (gouges) left over from the planer. They rub a wood sole smoothly on the wood work, and are not to be despised. Which 20 Woodworking Hand Tools Should You Buy First? A slightly cambered (i.e. Or if you have several thinner boards of the same thickness, you can gang-plane them all at once. Keep most of the downward pressure on the board over the infeed bed of the jointer, with little or no pressure on the outfeed side.

Seriously, suck it up. A pair of these planes is indispensable, the antiques Stanleys in a pair are astronomically costly, and these will cost you only an hour or two and a length of tool steel.

But the table-top is somehow perceivable as a hand-made object, there may be a softness about it which reminds you of the way it was made. Then starting at the right side of the boards length, I proceeded down the length with 40 degree angled cuts right across the width. There are other conversions for Transitionals, with a board screwed to the side accurately, they can make an edge joint at a perfect right angle just as well as a power jointer, and you never have to worry about the fence setting, since it is fixed at 90 degrees! Can You Install Shiplap Directly to Studs? Im glad this has been so helpful to you Ali! Save my name and email in this browser for the next time I comment. Expand your woodworking skills and get access to a wide range of domestic and imported wood for your furniture projects by learning to flatten and plane rough-sawn lumber. How do you dimension thickness??

Before you get to the final thickness, plane out any tear-out on the first side. But you wont get good results with either tool unless you keep them equipped with sharp knives.

Do so even if knots, checks or cracks are part of the waste at the ends. Your board should now be four squared. Place the jointed edge against the table saw fence and rip the board to within 1/8 in. I am just getting started with woodworking. The power jointer is always better (if sharp, to avoid crushing down open grain which the glue needs) and the fence is set accurately. But this time you will have the added advantage of guidelines to let you know when you are getting close.

If you need 1/2 or 1/4 inch thick boards for a project, where do you get them from? Work around knots, cracks and edges with deep tree bark. if(typeof ez_ad_units!='undefined'){ez_ad_units.push([[580,400],'uwoodcraft_com-leader-2','ezslot_3',125,'0','0'])};if(typeof __ez_fad_position!='undefined'){__ez_fad_position('div-gpt-ad-uwoodcraft_com-leader-2-0')}; On the other hand if you want to hold to hand-work, get a long solid-wood bodied jointer plane.

But they balk at any across the grain work. If you find a plane without this level and it is cheap, get it because you can sell it to a collector as an early model pre-lateral.

Glad it was helpful Dana!

At this point you would be ready to sand it. This took time but I preserved my material, whereas from previous experience I believe that if I had taken it to the mill where they do have big equipment, I might well have ended up with a much thinner board. Now that weve covered which woodworking hand tools you need to use, here are the 10 steps required for squaring lumber by hand (to flatten board): The first step to square a board is to cut the board to rough dimensions. By far this is the best information that I have been able to find on how to flatten and square a rough board. Then cut the board to lengths corresponding to the parts. The blade angles are generally about 40 degrees, they have a tall gripping handle at the rear and a hold-down post at the fore, they are used for smooth finishing work to be ready for sanding or scraping down. (The sizes go up to 32 inches in length, but use an 18 incher for this.). If you cut the support angle to 40 degrees and the wedge angle to 35, and clean out the material between with successive saw cuts, you will be ready to fit in your blade and make up your wedge to lock it. If you have extreme cupping in the board, hand plane down the length of the board, removing the high center to create a valley: Before hand planning across the grain, bevel the edge that is farthest away from you, to prevent major tear out: Then hand plane across the grain, from one end to the other: Adjust your hand plane so that your wood shavings are as big as possible, while still being able to move the plane. Send it through the jointer with the bowed side up.

Or it may have just been a whim. Use a scrubbing plane or jack plane, a jointer plane, and a smoothing plane to flatten & smooth the last face, according to the instructions in steps 2 through 5. By cutting this from a long piece of stock you can use your table saw miter gauge, you have enough material to hold onto, to cover some errors, and to make a second plane for the other direction. As far as the prizes for the giveaway, Im looking forward to winning the clamps. Dont work with long boards unless theyre called for; its much easier to flatten short boards. or so and push the board through the knives with the bowed side up. When youre making the last couple of passes, apply a bit more pressure on the outfeed side.

I just wanted to share some options: Browse our traditional woodworking video classes available in HD Streaming / Download and on DVD. To achieve a reference edge that is 90 degrees to the reference face, pinch the jointer plane with your thumb and index finger, and use your other 3 fingers (hopefully you still have that many digitsIm talking to you table saw users) as a fence to maintain the 90 degree angle: Push the hand plane lengthwise, producing moderately thick shavings, until the boards edge is flat. I love to reference it before I grab my hand planes. As for the table saw, any type will work fine, including portables. This is one simple method thatll get you started. Use your pencil to mark the high corners of the board. Then as long as you plane down to those marks, your board will be the same thickness all around. But there is a vast difference.

So it really comes down to the size of your deck and if the time saved with a floor sander would be worth the extra expense and hassle. Follow the above process for measuring and cutting the second and final end.

Your email address will not be published. Adjust your hand plane so that your shavings are ejecting from the middle of the jointer plane. Send it through the planer with the freshly jointed side down. When you first get one which looks solid without deep cracks, after removing the blade and wedge (! Glad you found my site Odee!

Heres an old chart that shows the difference between Cross-cut saw teeth and Rip saw teeth: Next, place the board between the bench dogs on your wood work bench, with the cupped face facing down, to avoid rocking. These are the old-fashioned style, with wedged blades which must be cautiously tapped into place for adjusting the cut. The main reason Im posting is because Id like to enter the Damstom D300 giveaway.

As you get comfortable with flattening, youre sure to develop your own. Also machines leave marks and I hoping thatRead more . Now I went over the whole surface, smoothing with this smooth plane in its proper function. Having dark ends or inlaid bars on one winding stick makes twist easier to spot. Have the necessary tools for this DIY project lined up before you startyoull save time and frustration. Woodworkers all have their own system for flattening wood, some of which are pretty complex. This mark is where you will cut or hand plane down to.

Send the highest point (at either end) of the board through the planer first, with a very small cut. var asau='3877574174';var cid='5333613385';var pid='ca-pub-9561996282171448';var slotId='div-gpt-ad-uwoodcraft_com-portrait-2-0';var ffid=1;var alS=1702%1000;var container=document.getElementById(slotId);container.style.width='100%';var ins=document.createElement('ins');ins.id=slotId+'-asloaded';ins.className='adsbygoogle ezasloaded';ins.dataset.adClient=pid;if(typeof window.adsenseNoUnit=='undefined'){ins.dataset.adSlot=asau;} I havent had much luck with the fence attachments for handplanes. Now remember that there are solid-block wood planes in these two sizes galore, running from about 15 to 20 inches, and although they take a lot of care tapping the blade into place accurately, they have one great advantage. You can also put the cupped face upward, which may make it easier to evenly bring the high edges down with a hand plane, simultaneously. Thanks for your reply, What I means when I have a refrence face, I can not get the opposite face parallel with it, even I have the gauge lines marked here, I always got this face messed up, Its flat, but its not parallet to the refrence face, So I waste too much time on fix it.

or thicker, you can use the planer for this step. 8 Jointer Plane, and an 18th century style wooden jointer plane (I built it, so its my favorite! Thats neat about your story. Hold the board against the fence with the bowed side up and send it through the jointer just as you did for the sides. Also there are wood Block Planes, made from a solid block of wood, whence the name. Select widths that are 1/2 in. Thats learning how to flatten rough-sawn wood. Whats the Best Wood to Use for Stair Treads. Just dont remove too much wood on the corners or youll have to lower the rest of the board to match your new low corners. I want to make a planter box out of it, but it needs to be planed. Dont ruin your combination square by dragging it, but just take incremental measurements. It would be good at this point to continue and make another plane going the other way, you always have changes in the grain or have to work to the opposite corner. I kept the cuts close, just chipping away at the length carefully, and in a few minutes I was down at the other end. Please rephrase. I decided which would be the down side for my table-top and went over it with the random-orbit sander at 180 grit, then 220 grit, and it looked just fine. With the two high edges up it was fairly automatic cutting, but when I turned the board over I had to be careful to keep my planing on that high center. link to What Is Silicone Grout? And at the same time I noted to myself that I had really done it carefully, correctly. jointer for less money, but you wont be able to flatten wider boards. It is for this reason that the machine is called a Thickness Planer, it is designed to cut to a given dimension of thickness. When youre getting full length and full width wood shavings, and your boards face starts to look flat and smooth, then youll know that the first board face is about ready. 7 Jointer Plane, a Stanley No.

These payments are very helpful to us, and add no additional fees to our users, so we are grateful for anyone who uses the affiliate links. If the tear-out is still there after the side is flat, let it go and send that side through the planer after the other side has been flattened.The planer gives a smoother cut than the jointer. For the majority of the population, the What Is Silicone Grout? I tapped the blade into a light cut, and started out removing the obvious high areas in long, fast sweeps at about twenty degree across the grain. https://woodandshop.com/colonial-williamsburg-hay-cabinet-shop-tutorial-resaw-wide-boards/, Joshua, Thanks. Then use a Cross Cut panel saw to cut your rough board to rough length (across the grain). You can also make one, but its tough to beat something as stable as one like this: Set the width of the panel gauge to your required width, lock in the measurement (with the screw or wedge), and run the cutter to make your perfectly parallel line. Joint it on the sole and then one side square to the base, and screw on a flat board to maintain squareness of your glue surface. Set the marking gauge against your flattened reference face and scribe the thickness onto both edges and ends: I like to follow the marks with a pencil to make them more visible for when I use the hand planes in the next step: Now you have a line drawn around the parameter of the board.

Flip your board around and hand plane in the other direction. And the least bit of heat will warp the iron, so although true when finished, it may be cupped slightly the next week.). Is Wood Burning a Physical or Chemical Change? But if for your own use, you want this adjustment which comes in real handy. Thanks for such great detailed articles, Glad you found me!

This site is excellent. These are larger than the small cast-iron planes, they are nice to feel in the hand, they have a touch of history to them. Usually try squares have at least one edge that is true. Use your pencil to mark where your high spots are: Then tilt your jointer plane to take down the high spots with a pass or two, then take another full pass or two. When I say slightly I mean barely.

Either way, youre just trying to get a square board for furniture making. I personally resaw using a bandsaw, but this is how the real studs did it in the olden days! Your email address will not be published. Next in size are the Smooth Planes, a little larger than the Blocks and averaging nine to ten inches in length.

So I went to my Stanley #7, which was lighter and easier to work with its two handles, I balanced the blade tilting it as above, and worked down the center crown. I felt a sense of pride in doing that job in an historical, old-fashioned way. Since the table is short, the board will come out with about the same curvature as it had when it went in. I really dont see much useful difference between these two sizes, there is only a couple of inches difference and they do the same work equally well. This scrub plane was a solid block plane about nine inches long, its sole was two and a half inches across with under an eighth inch roll, and the blade was matched to this curvature.

Always get 1/4 in. Cut each part at least 2 in. Use chalk to lay out the parts you expect to get out of the board. If you have a hardwood retailer or woodworking supplier near you, thats great. If you have tear-out or chatter during jointing, swing the board around and send the other end through first. They are in business to turn out work fast, a quick adjustment could cost me an eighth of an inch gone to chips. Siliconized Grout for Tile, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ojeul33vXL4, How to Square, Flatten, & Dimension Rough Boards by Hand (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ojeul33vXL4), Wood Pre-Craft (Drying, Identification, Selection, etc.). Hold the boards together as they enter and exit the planer. Since Im not cutting on this line (its just a visual guide), I prefer the pencil end. Advanced woodworking calls for a myriad of thicknesses only available in rough-sawn form. Second, I knew that such a wide board would be pressed flat by the rollers and would curl back when the work came out. In this article you had wood that could be planed to thickness what if it had needed to be half this thickness.

ebay.com and Amazon.com) those affiliate links may lead to referral compensation to us. if(typeof ez_ad_units!='undefined'){ez_ad_units.push([[580,400],'uwoodcraft_com-box-4','ezslot_5',116,'0','0'])};if(typeof __ez_fad_position!='undefined'){__ez_fad_position('div-gpt-ad-uwoodcraft_com-box-4-0')};Good shops always run work over the long-bed jointer which gets the bottom side straight, then the planer does what it is designed to do. Be persnickety and square the fence to the bed before any jointing. Can a Metal Roof be Installed Over Shingles? Youre just removing any messy wood, and getting to a manageable length; somewhat close to what youll eventually arrive at. In style they are designed as bigger cousins of the Smooth planes, the parts are just a little larger and heavier, the blades are wider, and they are build stouter for heavier work. But there was almost an eighth inch of cross-curve which is what made me decide to do the planing up by hand, since I wanted the thickest dimension I could come out with for my table-top. They responded to the notions of older craftsmen who didnt like the idea of rubbing iron onto their woodwork, possibly because iron in an unheated shop quickly picks up mild rust which can rub off as red and appear in the new water-based finishes. I noticed that most of the sources are selling rough stock at 4/4 or larger, but project demos seldom talk about getting it dimensioned to thickness. Would love your thoughts, please comment. This is one of my favorite and go to videos. When I cleaned up the shop and swept up a basket full of paper-thin mahogany shavings, and put the Stanleys back on their shelf all lying comfortably on there sides as they should be. I went at it with energy, first working down the high center and turning the board over onto two strips, I started cleaning down the high edges. Some woods are more prone to the problem than others; changing feed direction and setting the jointer or planer as shallow as possible will usually help. If I have several fatty boards to cut, then I wear a glove on my sawing hand to prevent a blister. Going to the next class we find the Jack Planes like the Stanley #5 which are used for hard work, removing stock fast and leaving finish to the next stage of work, although when sharp they will finish fine. Not sure what rip teeth and crossucut teeth are?

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Now, in this same class are the so-called transitional models, which nobody seems to understand or want. This is similar to that unmistakable brightness you see on a bluejays feathers, the result of light poured over micro-traps of the feathers, the size of these minute apertures measured in millionths of an inch, generates the color blue.
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