And what if you dont want to quote these individuals word for word, but provide a summary of what has been said? The clients said, "Well, no thanks; we won't reorder. Generally, the full intent and tone of a sentence should be carried by the words themselves, not by lines beneath words and phrases. He commented that he couldn't understand the figures. Topic-expert writers. Correct: No, the farmer said, my cow doesnt read much anymore. Incorrect: I should hope not, I muttered.
Try looking at what the person youre quoting has actually said. As you may have guessed from our article title, there are a number of ways in which indirect quotations can greatly improve your writing. With direct quotes, however, these rules differ across the two regions. ThoughtCo. Unannounced shifts from indirect to direct quotations are distracting and confusing, especially when the writer fails to insert the necessary quotation marks. Laie, Hawaii 96762-1293, O: (808) 675-3629 Overuse may also take away from the emphasis. BYUHawaii #1964 (Coulmas, Florian. The New Yorker, April 7, 2014.). Hours of Operation, Microlab 5 Misplaced Modifiers/Orderly Sentences. Therefore, use this technique sparingly in your writing. If you could easily paraphrase their quotations without losing any value, its probably best to opt for indirect quotations. by Elke Brendel, Jorg Meibauer, and Markus Steinbach, Walter de Gruyter, 2011. We often mixed quote another because (i) the reported utterance is too long to directly quote, but the reporter wants to ensure accuracy on certain key passages, (ii) certain passages in the original utterance were particularly well put , (iii) perhaps the words used by the original speaker were (potentially) offensive to an audience and the speaker wants to distance himself from them by indicating that they are the words of the individual being reported and not his own , and (iv) the expressions being mixed quoted might be ungrammatical or a solecism and the speaker might be trying to indicate that he's not responsible . By clicking Accept All Cookies, you agree to the storing of cookies on your device to enhance site navigation, analyze site usage, and assist in our marketing efforts. The term hepatic refers to a liver condition. Use quotation marks to enclose words used in an ironic sense (that is, in a sense quite different from their surface meaning): Correct: The victim seemed to enjoy the TV coverage. The bankers said they would work on that deal the next day. "How to Use Indirect Quotations in Writing for Complete Clarity." For many writers, the major benefit of using indirect quotations is the gravitas it can bring to your writing. Correct: I should hope not, I muttered. Incorrect: No, the farmer said, my cow doesnt read much anymore. Direct quotation with conversational words and phrases. Rather than stating something yourself, you are letting your reader know the point youre making is a point on which experts agree. Oops! Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia, M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester, B.A., English, State University of New York. Correct: George felt that she gave sound advice. When using quotation marks, follow these rules: Capitalize the first word of a direct quotation if the direct quotation is a complete sentence on its own: Incorrect: Jack asked, would you like to go out for a pizza? Correct: Id love to, Mary replied, but I have a date tonight. Correct: We can go later, John said. Correct: His professor advised him not to take on more work than he could handle. Using this approach, a third-person narrator adopts some of the linguistic characteristics or turn of phrase of the person being described. Mon.
Designed and run by Elevens top editors, our course is for new and intermediate writers who want to become true content experts, land the most interesting jobs, and command the best rates. ), In indirect speech, the reporter is free to introduce information about the reported speech event from his point of view and on the basis of his knowledge about the world, as he does not purport to give the actual words that were uttered by the original speaker(s) or that his report is restricted to what was actually said. Correct: You see, the farmer added, she broke her glasses last summer.. The use of quotation marks to suggest irony can often be confusing to the reader. 9 am - 1 pm. How to Use Indirect Quotations in Writing for Complete Clarity. Whether youre writing your businesss annual report, magazine articles, or your autobiography, chances are youll need to include quotations from experts or witnesses to key events. words and letters used as such, or for a word or term being defined, titles of books, plays, movies, or newspapers. Martin's, 2002. From a legal perspective, however, it is vital that you employ proper citations to acknowledge any type of source material you have quoted.
ThoughtCo, Aug. 28, 2020, thoughtco.com/indirect-quotation-writing-1691163.
Use underlining (on a computer use italics) for, Take the Quiz: Microlab Quizzes on Canvas, Reading Writing Lab firstname.lastname@example.org In this example, the quotation marks separate the teachers exact wordsCheck your quotation marksfrom the writers words at the end of the sentence. It is hard to be uncomfortable with indirect discourse. A direct quotation is the exact wording that someone says or writes. For example:Kingmelodiously praised the "veterans ofcreative suffering," urging them to continue the struggle. 55-220 Kulanui Street Bldg 5 Exclamation points and question marks are placed inside the quotation mark only when they are part of the direct quotation: Correct: The doctor asked, Are you dizzy? --> In this sentence, the question mark goes inside the quotation mark because the quotation itself is a question. The bankers said, "We'll work on this deal tomorrow. As you would vary your verb usage, its also essential to incorporate a mixture of quotation styles. Katy Ward has been an editor and writer for more than a decade. In the US, periods always come inside closing quotation marks, while in UK English, this will depend on the context.
We ate enchilada de pollo in Mexico City. Incorrect: You surely dont expect me to believe that your cow can read, I protested. The companys actions were in violation of employees rights, a union spokesperson has confirmed.
The young couple said that the price was too high. Do not use quotation marks in an indirect quotation: Incorrect: Susan said that, She would visit her family next weekend. Correct: Susan said that she would visit her family next weekend. The use of indirect quotations can help solidify your position as an authoritative voice. In writing, an "indirect quotation" is aparaphrase of someone else's words: It"reports" on what a person said without using the exact words of the speaker. It's also called "indirect discourse" and"indirect speech.". "Citing Bias Order, U.S. Curbs Yonkers on Aid to Builders." "Elicitation." An indirect quotation is when you are saying what someone said but without using their exact words. Indirect quotation: omit or rephrase conversational words and phrases. ), In his order yesterday, Judge Sand said, in effect, that if the city was willing to offer incentives to developers of luxury housing, commercial centers, shopping malls, and executive parks, it should also be assisting housing for minority group members. Later in this review, we will see that italics are used to mark titles of longer works. Your audience cares more about what you have to say than how you say it. ), There are many reasons why we might opt to mixed quote another rather than directly or indirectly quote him. Definition and Examples of Direct Quotations, Guidelines for Using Quotation Marks Correctly, Definition and Examples of Quotation in English Grammar, Learn the Correct Way to Use Quotation Marks in a Headline. Correct: When Victor says, Ill be there, I believe him, I explained. An indirect quotation reports someone's words without quoting word for word: Annabelle said that she is a Virgo. While direct quotations report an interviewees statement verbatim, indirect quotations enable you to convey the overall meaning of what has been said, while paraphrasing the exact language. Kath said: Its my turn to pay tonight, Ron., A union spokesperson said: The companys actions were in clear breach of their employees legal rights.. Direct and Indirect Speech, Mouton de Gruyter, 1986.). You can avoid confusing quotation marks and italics for titles by keeping this rule in mind: short workspoems, short stories, essays, and so forthtake short marks: . Its up to you. (Baker, Russell. perspective. Correct: You surely dont expect me to believe that your cow can read, I protested. The word victim appears in quotation marks to suggest that the person enjoys the media attention too much to be called a victim. Why dont you call me when youre free?, Correct: Thats right, the professor said.
You know that it is not a direct quote because Susan wouldnt use She to refer to herself! "How to Use Indirect Quotations in Writing for Complete Clarity." Having written for both national newspapers and independent media outlets from her home in the north of England, she specialises in finance, tech, mental health, and the arts. Quotation marks and italics set off or give special emphasis to words or phrases in a sentence. Remember, both forms of quotation are equally valid in expository writing in which factual accuracy is key. Indirect discourse is an excellent way to say what someone said and avoid the matter of verbatim quoting altogether. Misrepresenting Misrepresentation, Understanding Quotation, ed.
An indirect quotation (unlike a direct quotation) is not placed in quotation marks. - Understand how quotation marks and italics should be used. Ask yourself if he or she is saying anything you couldnt say yourself. The clients thanked us but said they would not reorder.
If one direct quotation contains another, the second quotation is set off by single quotation marks.
If a quote is something like "I'll be there prepared for anything, at the first hint of dawn," and you think, for any reason, that it might not be in the verbatim zone, get rid of the quotation marks and state it in indirect discourse (improving the logic while you're at it). https://www.thoughtco.com/indirect-quotation-writing-1691163 (accessed July 22, 2022). (Hacker, Diane. Kath told Ron she would like to pay for dinner on their date night. Shifting From Direct to Indirect Quotations. If youre nervous about the grammatical rules about quoting interviewees, you may be pleased to learn you wont need to use single or double quotation marks with indirect quotes. 9 am - 11 pm, Fri. 9 am - 9 pm, Sat. You should also note that the rules surrounding indirect quotes are the same across US and UK English. The young couple said, "The price was too high.".
To avoid confusion in addressing the subject of indirect quotes and also situations where you would be shifting between direct and indirect quotes, we have decided to forgo the extra quotation marks. Direct quotation with expressions of time and place. Although we learn these rules in school, it can be easy to forget the basics in adulthood. You should use italics/underlines for emphasis only occasionally in your writing. Nordquist, Richard. Dr. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks.
Here are more examples of direct quotations separated from the rest of the sentence by quotation marks: Welcome home! Bob called. Faculty Contact Book: The Sound and the Fury Play: Macbeth Movie: Horror in the Supermarket Newspaper: Daily News Post To avoid confusing italicized titles with quoted titles, remember this rule: For a long worka book, play, movie, and so forthuse a long mark: italics. Our Japanese guest used the word hai in almost every sentence. Direct quotation with first person pronoun, He commented, "I can't understand the figures.". French Grammar: Direct and Indirect Speech. (what Bob/Pam said) (what the writer adds) This exam is easy, Pam said. The words spoken by the teacher are a direct quotation. The Seattle Times, July 10, 2006. Indirect quotations are often (but not always) introduced by the word that. "U.S. May Slap China With Suit in Intellectual-Property Dispute." Use quotation marks to enclose that word/phrase: Correct: Check your quotation marks, the teacher suggested. Note: In the following quoted examples, we would normally use quotation marks because we are giving you examples and observations of indirect quotes from newspapers and books that we are directly quoting. - Thurs. ), U.S. Navy Admiral William Fallon, commander of the U.S. Pacific Command said he called Chinese counterparts to discuss North Korea's missile tests, for example, and got a written response that said, in essence, "Thanks, but no thanks. (Johnson, Michael and Ernie Lepore. __________________________ Use quotation marks to enclose the title of a short poem, short story, song, TV show, essay, or chapter: Short poem: In Just Spring Short story: Why I Live at the P.O. Song: Yesterday TV show: Friends Essay: Politics in the 80s Chapter: Desert Insects. These are some more good examples of indirect quotations: Correct: George said that he would take four classes next semester. The combination of a direct quotation and an indirect quotation is called a "mixed quotation."
Content optimised for link clicks or reading time. Colons and semicolons at the end of the quote are placed outside the quotation mark: Correct: Her friend said, Think twice about that class; however, Jill had her mind made up. When it comes to successfully deploying indirect and direct quotations in your work, the most talented writers do not operate on an either/or basis. Thank you!
But do you know the rules over how to correctly include quotations? "The Cruelest Month." The New York Times, Nov. 20, 1987.). McKay Classroom Building 199 As well as penning short stories in her spare time, she can be found on Twitter at @KatyWardHull. Incorrect: You see, the farmer added, she broke her glasses last summer. (McPhee, John. By mixing the two types of quotation, you can also vary the pace of your writing, which can prevent your readers mind from drifting. The chess master was exposed as a con artist. A direct quotation presents the exact words of a speaker or writer, set off with quotation marks: Annabelle said, "I am a Virgo." You can then save the use of direct quotation for any more colorful, controversial, or unexpected remarks. Your submission has been received! Free indirect speech is another method of quotation often found in novel and narrative writing. New York Times, Sept. 21, 1980. One point to bear in mind: it can be a mistake to let any quotes, whether direct or indirect, overwhelm your writing. Difference Between "Quote" and "Quotation": What Is the Right Word? Nordquist, Richard.