Constantine played an active role in the leadership of the Church. ", Catholic priests were executed in concentration camps alongside Jews; for example, 2,600 Catholic priests were imprisoned in Dachau, and 2,000 of them were executed (cf. " It also includes Indigenous or diasporic forms of Christianity in Western Europe and North America.. But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in My name, He will teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all that I said to you (John 14:25-26, ESV). It began as a dispute in the 11th century between the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII concerning who would appoint bishops (investiture). The ante-Nicene period (literally meaning "before Nicaea") was the period following the Apostolic Age down to the First Council of Nicaea in 325.  Today, there are more than two billion Christians worldwide and Christianity has become the world's largest religion. Catherine, among many other noble relations, was the aunt of Emperor Charles V, the papacy's most significant secular supporter. For the magazine, see, Arianism and the first ecumenical councils, Church of the East and the Sasanian Empire, Late Middle Ages and the early Renaissance (13001520), Criticism of Catholic Church abuses and corruption, Colonization and Christianization of the Americas, Pentecostal movement and Charismatic Christianity, "The figure () is an allegory of Christ as the shepherd", Everett Ferguson, "Factors leading to the Selection and Closure of the New Testament Canon", in, H. J. He thus established a precedent for the emperor as responsible to God for the spiritual health of his subjects, and thus with a duty to maintain orthodoxy. Why Does Jeremiah Remind Us God Is Great? "The 1539 inquisition and trial of Don Carlos of Texcoco in early Mexico."
Over the last century, moves have been made to reconcile the schism between the Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox churches. A primary source for the Apostolic Age is the Acts of the Apostles, but its historical accuracy has been debated and its coverage is partial, focusing especially from Acts 15 onwards on the ministry of Paul, and ending around 62 AD with Paul preaching in Rome under house arrest. Article Images Copyright 2022 Getty Images unless otherwise indicated.  In each instance, according to the Arab Melkite Christian chronicler Eutychius of Alexandria, the caliph al-Muqtadir (r.908932) contributed to the rebuilding of ecclesiastical property.. The Medieval Inquisition was a series of inquisitions (Roman Catholic ecclesiastical bodies charged with suppressing Christian movements that they regarded as heretical) from around 1184, including the Episcopal Inquisition (11841230) and later the Papal Inquisition (1230s1240s). , There was no empire-wide persecution of Christians until the reign of Decius in the 3rd century. These things can be conceived through our perception of nature and history as well as our innate conscience. His declaration that "Spiritually, [Christians] are all Semites" prompted the Nazis to give him the title "Chief Rabbi of the Christian World.  As early as in the 5th century, missionary activities from Roman Britain into the Celtic areas (Scotland, Ireland, and Wales) produced competing early traditions of Celtic Christianity, that was later reintegrated under the Church in Rome. Methodius went on to convert the Serbs.. The council ultimately rejected Nestorius' view. Christianity grew apart from Judaism, creating its own identity by an increasingly harsh rejection of Judaism and of Jewish practices. Approaches to Jesus-Devotion in Earliest Christianity", "Breaking Away: The First Christianities", "How Antichrist Defeated Death: The Development of Christian Apocalyptic Eschatology in the Early Church", "Part II: Christian Origins and Development Paul and the Development of Gentile Christianity", "Identity and Authority in Ancient Judaism", Fleeing forward: The departure of Christians from Jerusalem to Pella, The Jewish Christians Move from Jerusalem as a pragmatic choice, "The "Afterlife" of the New Testament and Postmodern Interpretation, "Lecture 27: Heretics, Heresies and the Church", "The Orient on the Eve of Islam: Political and Economic Aspects of Dhimmitude", Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide, A History of the Crusades, Volume 1: The First Crusade and the Foundation of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, "Introduction: Christian Martyrs under Islam", "Interfaith Marriage in Islam: An Examination of the Legal Theory Behind the Traditional and Reformist Positions", Assyrians contributions to the Islamic civilization, "Medieval Sourcebook: Iconoclastic Council, 754 EPITOME OF THE DEFINITION OF THE ICONOCLASTIC CONCILIABULUM, HELD IN CONSTANTINOPLE, A.D. 754", "Part V: The Mediterranean Frontiers The thirteenth-century crusades in the Mediterranean", "Part I: Before the Tribunal Defending the Faith: Medieval Inquisitors and the Prosecution of Jews and Converts", "From Eastern Roman to Byzantine: transformation of Roman culture (500800)", The Australian Institute for Holocaust and Genocide Studies, http://www.helleniccomserve.com/pdf/BlkBkPontusPrinceton.pdf, "Settler Colonialism and Indigenous Nations", Definition of Protestantism at the Episcopal Church website, "Crypto-Protestants and Pseudo-Catholics in the Nineteenth-Century Hispanic Caribbean", http://www.orthodoxresearchinstitute.org/resources/sermons/calciu_christ_calling.htm, https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/11/25/AR2006112500783.html, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,150718,00.html, "Meeting of His Holiness Pope Francis with His Holiness Kirill, Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia", "Decoloniality and Interculturality in World Christianity: A Latin American Perspective", "De l'glise de la circoncision l'glise de la gentilit sur une nouvelle voie hors de l'impasse", "Cognitive Dissonance and the Resurrection of Jesus", "Current Trends in the Study of Early Christian Martyrdom", "The Apostle Paul and the Introspective Conscience of the West", "Ancient Judaism: Nazarenes and Ebionites", "How Jewish Christians Became Christians", excerpt and text search and highly detailed table of contents, Early Stages of the Establishment of Christianity, Political influence of Evangelicalism in Latin America, Architecture of cathedrals and great churches, List of religions and spiritual traditions, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Christianity&oldid=1099583206, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from January 2022, All articles with bare URLs for citations, Articles with bare URLs for citations from March 2022, Articles with PDF format bare URLs for citations, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Pages using sidebar with the child parameter, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2021, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, This page was last edited on 21 July 2022, at 14:50.  Both Wycliffe and Hus were accused of heresy and subsequently condemned to the death penalty for their outspoken views about the Catholic Church.. , According to the tradition of the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Muslim conquest of the Levant was a relief for Christians oppressed by the Western Roman Empire.
It is typically divided into two periods: the Apostolic Age (c. 30100, when the first apostles were still alive) and the Ante-Nicene Period (c. Pius began his pontificate by giving large alms to the poor, charity, and hospitals, and the pontiff was known for consoling the poor and sick as well as supporting missionaries. The city of Rome, the papacy, and the papal states were all affected by the Renaissance. The word "liberal" in liberal Christianity does not refer to a leftist political agenda or set of beliefs, but rather to the freedom of dialectic process associated with continental philosophy and other philosophical and religious paradigms developed during the Age of Enlightenment. One of the first things that Mehmet the Conqueror did was to allow the Church to elect a new patriarch, Gennadius Scholarius. Monarchs such as Edward VI, Lady Jane Grey, Mary I, Elizabeth I, and Archbishops of Canterbury such as Thomas Cranmer and William Laud, pushed the Church of England in different directions over the course of only a few generations. The New Testament writers also use the terms overseer and elders interchangeably and as synonyms. :4142 According to some later hagiographies, including one by one of several Middle Byzantine writers known as Michael the Synkellos, among the forty-two were Kallistos, the doux of the Koloneian thema, and the heroic martyr Theodore Karteros. Conversion was slow, however, and most Scandinavian lands were only completely Christianised at the time of rulers such as Saint Canute IV of Denmark and Olaf I of Norway in the years following AD1000. So, not only does God want to be known by us, but he has made ways for us to know Him. The two brothers spoke the local Slavonic vernacular and translated the Bible and many of the prayer books. From now on you do know him and have seen him(John 14:7, ESV). Dharmaization (Hindu-Buddhist Indianization), separation of early Christianity from Judaism, Christological debates about the human and divine nature of Jesus, actively instigated by the Christian churches, more than two billion Christians worldwide, Christianity has become the world's largest religion, Historical background of the New Testament, Development of the Christian biblical canon, Persecution of Christians in the New Testament, Persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, the first country in the world to establish Christianity, revive Greco-Roman Paganism in the Roman Empire, Ulfilas spread Arian Christianity among the Goths, Persecution of pagans in the late Roman Empire, A Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation, Prayer, meditation and contemplation in Christianity, forcibly compel them to accept Christianity, forced many Christians to convert to Islam, were executed under the Islamic death penalty, Muslim women have been forbidden from marrying Christian or Jewish men, Eastern Christian scientists and scholars of the medieval Islamic world, Medieval history of Christianity High Middle Ages (8001300), Eastern Orthodox opposition to papal supremacy, technological advancement and diffusion in medieval Europe, conflict between secular and religious powers, Medieval history of Christianity Late Middle Ages (13001499), denouncing the abuses and corruption of the Catholic Church, Persecution of Christians Ottoman Empire, History of the Eastern Orthodox Church under the Ottoman Empire, roots of corruption within the Catholic Church, relationship between religion and science, Puritan migration to New England (162040), The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Persecution of Christians in Nazi Germany, Persecution of Christians in the Eastern Bloc, Persecution of Christians in the Soviet Union, Nazi persecution of the Catholic Church in Germany, History of Christianity of the Late Modern era, persecution of Christians in the Middle East, Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification, Countries by percentage of Protestant Christians, Rise of Christianity during the Fall of Rome, Role of the Christian Church in civilization, "Part III: The Boundaries of Tolerance and Intolerance in Early America Native Freedom? His life goal is to serve God and His Church by reaching the lost with the gospel, making devoted disciples, equipping and empowering others to go further in their faith and calling, and leading a culture of multiplication for the glory of God. , The Holy Land had been part of the Roman Empire, and thus subsequently of the Byzantine Empire, until the Arab Muslim invasions of the 7th and 8th centuries. Many churches who followed the Nestorian viewpoint broke away from the Roman Church, causing a major schism. 100325)..  They also excelled in philosophy, science, theology, and medicine. , In general, Christians subject to Islamic rule were allowed to practice their religion with some notable limitations stemming from the apocryphal Pact of Umar. Modern western universities have their origins directly in the Medieval Church. Especially targeting critical approaches to the interpretation of the Bible, and trying to blockade the inroads made into their churches by atheistic scientific assumptions, fundamentalist Christians began to appear in various Christian denominations as numerous independent movements of resistance to the drift away from historic Christianity. John Vidmar, The Catholic Church Through the Ages: A History (New York: Paulist Press, 2005), p. 332 & n. 37. They produced two sorts of works, theological and apologetic, the latter being works aimed at defending the Christian faith by using reason, philosophy, and sacred scriptures to refute arguments against the veracity of Christianity. According to the apostolic teaching let us believe in the one deity of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, in equal majesty and in a holy Trinity. :2930, After the 838 Sack of Amorium, the hometown of the emperor Theophilos (r.829842) and his Amorian dynasty, the caliph al-Mu'tasim (r.833842) took more than forty Roman prisoners. Simultaneous to the Counter-Reformation, the Catholic Reformation consisted of improvements in art and culture, anti-corruption measures, the founding of the Jesuits, the establishment of seminaries, a reassertion of traditional doctrines and the emergence of new religious orders aimed at both moral reform and new missionary activity. , The religious, social, and political climate of 1st-century Roman Judea and its neighbouring provinces was extremely diverse and constantly characterized by socio-political turmoil, with numerous Judaic movements that were both religious and political.
 Michael the Syrian, patriarch of Antioch, wrote later that the Christian God had "raised from the south the children of Ishmael to deliver us by them from the hands of the Romans". The Post-Apostolic period was diverse both in terms of beliefs and practices.  The ancient Roman-Jewish historian Josephus described the four most prominent sects within Second Temple Judaism: Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, and an unnamed "fourth philosophy", which modern historians recognize to be the Zealots and Sicarii. , The deserts of the Middle East were at one time inhabited by thousands of male and female Christian ascetics, hermits and anchorites, including St. Anthony the Great (otherwise known as St. Anthony of the Desert), St. Mary of Egypt, and St. Simeon Stylites, collectively known as the Desert Fathers and Desert Mothers. The relationship between Nazism and Protestantism, especially the German Lutheran Church, was complex. The Fourth Crusade, begun by Innocent III in 1202, intended to retake the Holy Land but was soon subverted by the Venetians. The Albigensian Crusade targeted the heretical Cathars of southern France; in combination with the Inquisition set up in its aftermath, it succeeded in exterminating them. However, instead of using audible voices, prophets, angels, visions, or miracles, he primarily speaks through the activity of the Holy Spirit thatbears witnessfor him(John 15:26-27).  The Puritans, or Pilgrims, left England so that they could live in an area with Puritanism established as the exclusive civic religion. Over time, the Evangelical movement has divided into two main wings, with the label Fundamentalist following one branch, while the term Evangelical has become the preferred banner of the more moderate side.  Arianism was condemned at the First Council of Nicea (325), which supported the Trinitarian doctrine as expounded in the Nicene Creed. Pentecostalism would later lead to the Charismatic movement. Bishoprics being merely lifetime appointments, a king could better control their powers and revenues than those of hereditary noblemen.  During the High Middle Ages, Eastern and Western Christianity grew apart, leading to the EastWest Schism of 1054. , Throughout the Americas, the Jesuits were active in attempting to convert the Indigenous peoples to Christianity.  Early Christianity spread to pockets of believers among Aramaic-speaking peoples along the Mediterranean coast and also to the inland parts of the Roman Empire and beyond, into the Parthian Empire and the later Sasanian Empire, including Mesopotamia, which was dominated at different times and to varying extent by these empires.. As a matter of fact, our Bibles 66books were not even compiled (or canonized) until the fourth century AD (and a few centuries earlier for the Old Testament). The stepwise loss of Western Roman Empire dominance, replaced with foederati and Germanic kingdoms, coincided with early missionary efforts into areas not controlled by the collapsing empire. So, nearly three centuries before the Bible was put together, God made himself known to humanity with the clearest presentation of himself that he could: Through Jesus. , Another issue developed into a major irritant to Eastern Christendom, the gradual introduction into the Nicene Creed in the West of the Filioque clause meaning "and the Son" as in "the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son", where the original Creed, sanctioned by the councils and still used today by the Eastern Orthodox, simply states "the Holy Spirit, proceeds from the Father." What emerged was the Elizabethan Religious Settlement and a state church that considered itself both "Reformed" and "Catholic" but not "Roman", and other unofficial more radical movements, such as the Puritans. , The word Protestant is derived from the Latin protestatio, meaning declaration, which refers to the letter of protestation by Lutheran princes against the decision of the Diet of Speyer in 1529, which reaffirmed the edict of the Diet of Worms ordering the seizure of all property owned by persons guilty of advocating Lutheranism. The council is perhaps best known for its instructions that the Mass may be celebrated in the vernacular as well as in Latin. Pauls letters to the churches around Asia were written to be read aloud publicly (1 Timothy 4:13). Why Is Holding Fast to the Faith Important? In 451, the Council of Chalcedon was held to further clarify the Christological issues surrounding Nestorianism. 842847). With respect to Catholic relations with Protestant communities, certain commissions were established to foster dialogue and documents have been produced aimed at identifying points of doctrinal unity, such as the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification produced with the Lutheran World Federation in 1999. The regular forgetfulness of Gods people was why he commanded monuments to be built as reminders for them to teach their children about what God had done and said (Joshua 4). :34, According to the Synaxarion of Constantinople, the hegumenos Michael of Zobe and thirty-six of his monks at the Monastery of Zobe near Sebasteia (Sivas) were killed by a raid on the community. The Wendish Crusade succeeded in subjugating and forcibly converting the pagan Slavs of modern eastern Germany. In reaction to these developments, Christian fundamentalism was a movement to reject the radical influences of philosophical humanism as this was affecting the Christian religion. As slavery was prohibited between Christians and could only be imposed upon non-Christian prisoners of war and/or men already sold as slaves, the debate on Christianization was particularly acute during the early 16th century, when Spanish conquerors and settlers sought to mobilize Indigenous labor. The Carolingian Renaissance was a period of intellectual and cultural revival of literature, arts, and scriptural studies during the late 8th and 9th centuries under the rule of the Carolingian dynasty, mostly during the reigns of the Frankish kings Charlemagne, founder and first Emperor of the Carolingian Empire, and his son, Louis the Pious.  Various Christological debates about the human and divine nature of Jesus consumed the Christian Church for three centuries, and seven ecumenical councils were called to resolve these debates. But while nature does not provide information about the specific Gospel of Jesus Christ, it does provide a general revelation about the necessary existence of a creator as well as his transcendence and supremacy above all things, his immanence or involvement with all things, his timelessness, his power, and his goodness. Bucharest, President of Lithuania: Prisoner of the Gulag a Biography of, Christ Is Calling You: A Course in Catacomb Pastorship by Father, Father Arseny 18931973 Priest, Prisoner, Spiritual Father. It was established in response to the Christian movements within Europe considered apostate or heretical to Western Catholicism, in particular the Bogomils, Cathars (or Albigensians), Waldensians, Beguines and Beghards, Lollards, Hussites, and European Jews, which were respectively disseminated in the Bulgarian Empire, Southern France, Northern Italy, the Flanders and Rhineland, England, the Lands of the Bohemian Crown, and the territories united under the Crown of Aragon.
The controversy also involved Eastern and Western ecclesiastical jurisdictional rights in the Bulgarian church. St Vladimir's Seminary Press, The Washington Post Anti-Communist Priest Gheorghe Calciu-Dumitreasa By Patricia Sullivan Washington Post Staff Writer Sunday, 26 November 2006; p. C09. They considered the roots of corruption within the Catholic Church and its ecclesiastical structure to be doctrinal, rather than simply a matter of depravity, moral weakness, or lack of ecclesiastical discipline, and thus advocated for God's autonomy in redemption, and against voluntaristic notions that salvation could be earned by people.  The Hagia Sophia and the Parthenon, which had been Christian churches for nearly a millennium, were converted into mosques. Franciscans and Dominicans learned Indigenous languages, such as Nahuatl, Mixtec, and Zapotec. God also still shows himself through anthropic or ordinary events of life. , Jerusalem was held by the crusaders for nearly a century, while other strongholds in the Near East remained in Christian possession much longer.  Jan Hus, a Czech Christian theologian based in Prague, was influenced by Wycliffe and spoke out against the abuses and corruption he saw in the Catholic Church. All of these nations had been converted long before these dates. Prior to this date, Constantius II and Valens had personally favoured Arian or Semi-Arian forms of Christianity, but Valens' successor Theodosius I supported the Trinitarian doctrine as expounded in the Nicene Creed. Eventually, Henry IV received absolution after a dramatic public penance, though the Great Saxon Revolt and conflict of investiture continued. Photios refused to accept the supremacy of the pope in Eastern matters or accept the Filioque clause.  The early Christian groups were strictly Jewish, such as the Ebionites, and the early Christian community in Jerusalem, led by James the Just, brother of Jesus. They had considerable success on the frontiers in New France, Portuguese Brazil, and Antonio de Vieira, S.J; and in Paraguay, almost an autonomous state within a state.  This included people like the Grand Duchess Elizabeth Fyodorovna who was at this point a monastic.
Priesterblock). vi1. Ecumenism broadly refers to movements between Christian groups to establish a degree of unity through dialogue. Among the sees, five came to hold special eminence: Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria. Jerusalem was held until 1187 and the Third Crusade, after battles between Richard the Lionheart and Saladin. , Notable Christian authors of Late Antiquity such as Origen, St Jerome, John Chrysostom, and Augustine of Hippo, interpreted meanings of the Biblical texts within a highly asceticized religious environment. The term covers radical reformers like Thomas Mntzer and Andreas Karlstadt, the Zwickau prophets, and Anabaptist Christians, most notably the Amish, Mennonites, Hutterites, the Bruderhof Communities, and Schwarzenau Brethren. Julian's short reign ended when he died in battle with the Persians (363).  The Lollards, a Proto-Protestant Christian movement that followed the teachings of Wycliffe, played a role in the English Reformation.  The Martyrs of Crdoba were executed under the rule of Abd al-Rahman II and Muhammad I, and Eulogius' hagiography describes in detail the executions of the martyrs for capital violations of Islamic law, including apostasy and blasphemy. When the first Franciscans arrived in Mexico in 1524, they burned the sacred places dedicated to the Indigenous peoples' native religions.  These were the first inquisition movements of many that would follow in European Christendom. Troubles reached their peak in 1378 when Gregory XI died while visiting Rome. In 1453, Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Empire. Restorationists do not usually describe themselves as "reforming" a Christian church continuously existing from the time of Jesus, but as restoring the Church that they believe was lost at some point. Though the bishop of Rome was still held to be the First among equals, Constantinople was second in precedence as the new capital of the empire. The Roman Catholic Church wanted to end lay investiture to end this and other abuses, to reform the episcopate and provide better pastoral care.  The Umayyad Caliphate persecuted many Berber Christians in the 7th and 8th centuries AD, who slowly converted to Islam.  The writings of al-Jahiz attacked Christians for being too prosperous, and indicates they were able to ignore even those restrictions placed on them by the state. Historian Sydney E. Ahlstrom saw it as part of a "great international Protestant upheaval" that also created pietism in Germany, the Evangelical Revival, and Methodism in England. It describes who he is, what he is like, and what he does. Following a series of heavy military reverses against the Muslims, Iconoclasm emerged within the provinces of the Byzantine Empire in the early 8th century. The First Great Awakening was a wave of religious enthusiasm among Protestants in the American colonies c. 17301740, emphasising the traditional Reformed virtues of Godly preaching, rudimentary liturgy, and a deep sense of personal guilt and redemption by Christ Jesus.  The 1st century BC and 1st century AD had numerous charismatic religious leaders contributing to what would become the Mishnah of Rabbinic Judaism, including the Jewish sages Yohanan ben Zakkai and Hanina ben Dosa. The University as a European Institution", in: Cline, Sarah. Then, in time, he had those meaningful words committed to writing.  The early rejection of images, and the necessity to hide Christian practice from persecution, left behind few written records regarding early Christianity and its evolution. Poole, Stafford.  He emphasized the supremacy of the Bible and called for a direct relationship between God and the human person, without interference by priests and bishops. What Is the Significance of Gods Call to Samuel? The Livonian Crusade, carried out by the Teutonic Knights and other orders of warrior-monks, similarly conquered and forcibly converted the pagan Balts of Livonia and Old Prussia. Henry IV's rejection of the decree led to his excommunication and a ducal revolt. Conquered Indigenous groups expected to take on the gods of their new overlords, adding them to the existing pantheon. Other Christian practitioners of asceticism include saints such as Paul the Hermit, Simeon Stylites, David of Wales, John of Damascus, and Francis of Assisi. Crusades in Iberia (the Reconquista), southern Italy, and Sicily eventually lead to the demise of Islamic power in Europe. More significantly, in 325 he summoned the Council of Nicaea, the first ecumenical council. From the beginning, God has been displaying himself and his nature, attributes, power, and purposes to individuals. The most widely known proponent of this viewpoint was the Patriarch of Constantinople Nestorius. There are several ways that God has revealed himself to humanity: By nature, with personal interactions, and through Jesus. In the first five years after the Bolshevik revolution, 28 bishops and 1,200 priests were executed. :70 The perpetrator was the "emir of the Hagarenes", "Alim", probably Ali ibn-Sulayman, an Abbasid governor who raided Roman territory in 785 AD. Even better, he could leave the post vacant and collect the revenues, theoretically in trust for the new bishop, or give a bishopric to pay a helpful noble. The Roman Emperor TheodosiusII called for the Council of Ephesus (431), with the intention of settling the issue. The reasons for that decision were complex; the most important factors were that Bulgaria was situated between two powerful Christian empires, Byzantium and East Francia; Christian doctrine particularly favoured the position of the monarch as God's representative on Earth, while Boris also saw it as a way to overcome the differences between Bulgars and Slavs.  However, modern historians also recognize that the Christian populations living in the lands invaded by the Arab Muslim armies between the 7th and 10th centuries AD suffered religious persecution, religious violence, and martyrdom multiple times at the hands of Arab Muslim officials and rulers; many were executed under the Islamic death penalty for defending their Christian faith through dramatic acts of resistance such as refusing to convert to Islam, repudiation of the Islamic religion and subsequent reconversion to Christianity, and blasphemy towards Muslim beliefs.