educate for change africa


Working Paper. Short-term Experimental Evidence on Parent Empowerment and School Quality, Strengthening Teaching Accountability to Reach All Students, Turning a Shove into a Nudge? The authors make no claim to causality, as unobserved characteristics of students may still play a role in the results. Moussa and Omoeva (2020) use a fuzzy regression discontinuity design to examine the impact of universal primary education policies in Ethiopia, Malawi and Uganda: they find an increase in educational attainment, as well as a decrease in adolescent pregnancy and marriage. In Kenya, randomly selected parents of young children received either childrens storybooks or storybooks with training on how to read the storybooks with children (Knauer et al., 2020). In this paper, we synthesise recent research on how to expand access to education and improve the quality of learning in Africa.4 Our analysis reveals two trends. A third challenge is cost-effectiveness. In our discussion section, we elaborate on factors to consider when translating a program from one setting to another. Alternatively, technology can fill an input gap in terms of role models: Riley (2019) finds that showing secondary students in Uganda a film featuring a low-income adolescent Ugandan girl succeeding at chess improved student test scores and closed the gender gap in enrollment in subsequent years. On the contrary, the vast majority of at-scale teacher professional development programs in Africa (and elsewhere) go unevaluated in any serious way and many among those do not have the characteristics common to programs that have been shown to be effective (Popova et al., 2018). However, private schools yielded more learning gains when they received an instructional improvement intervention than did public schools. Some approaches, such as improving family-school communication on the benefits of education, are highly cost-effective in helping improve student learning outcomes due to their ability to be implemented at wide scale. Learning to leapfrog (2019) take advantage of the expansion of pre-primary education in Kenya and Tanzania to compare siblings with access with siblings without; they find that children with access to preschool education are more likely to be in primary school, more likely to have advanced, and have moderately higher scores on cognitive tests (0.10 standard deviations). One concrete way for the USG to advance this is to invest in a design-thinking process with African partners at the center and multiple actors from across a range of disciplines assisting in brainstorming how to leapfrog or rapidly accelerate progress in addressing a particular problem (e.g., low literacy levels or high youth unemployment). (, Hulett, J. L., Weiss, R. E., Bwibo, N. O., Galal, O. M., Drorbaugh, N., and Neumann, C. G. (, Ingwersen N., Kazianga H., Linden L. L., Mamun A., Protik A., Sloan M. (, can, T. B., Rosenblum, D., and Tinker, K. (, Jere-Folotiya, J., Chansa-Kabali, T., Munachaka, J. C., Sampa, F., Yalukanda, C., Westerholm, J., Richardson, U., Serpell, R., and Lyytinen, H. (, John, I. E., Udofia, N.-A., Udoh, N. A., and Anagbogu, M. A. Akresh et al. The needs in this area are so great that the USG should continue to support partners to address foundational literacy and numeracy. Education in Developing Nations (, Lucas, A. M., McEwan, P. J., Ngware, M., and Oketch, M. (, Lysenko L., Abrami P. C., Wade C. A., Marsh J. P., WaGioko M., Kiforo E. (, Martinez S., Naudeau S., Pereira V. A. Several recent studies look beyond educational outcomes to examine the impact of school-based programs to improve other outcomes for girls (Appendix Table 14). Piper et al. Inclusive and equitable education systems must be built on a strong early learning foundation, otherwise it will be the most well-off young people who continue to access secondary education and leave their most marginalized peers behind. sub-Saharan Africas working-age population will increase more than twofoldaccounting for 68 percent of the worlds total growth, Collaborating to transform and improve education systems: A playbook for family-school engagement, Ghanas leapfrog experiment: Free senior secondary school for all youth, Government Strategy on International and Basic Education, Leapfrogging Inequality: Remaking Education to Help Young People Thrive, groups based on students learning level increased test scores for all students, Collaborating to improve and transform education systems: A playbook for family school engagement, almost half of poor people in sub-Saharan Africa lived in just five economies, widens inequality gaps in sub-Saharan Africa, all of which can impact school attendance rates, performance outcomes, and dropout rates, by 2025 more than 12 million girls will be at risk of not completing their education every year as a result of climate change, Ministers of Education and Ministers of the Environment, Unleashing the creativity of teachers and students to combat climate change, Punching Below Its Weight: The U.S. Government Approach to Education in the Developing World, Riding to school: How bicycles are changing education for girls in rural Africa, Radical inclusion means teaching children in a language they understand, Summer readings on cash transfers and social protection, The growth in the worlds labor market is in Africa. These include studies on mother tongue instruction, structured pedagogy and policies around teacher pay and teacher professional development and accountability. A recent synthesis, not restricted to Africa but drawing heavily on research from the continent, suggests that the most effective investments to improve girls educational outcomes may be a mix of targeted and non-targeted investments (Evans and Yuan, 2019). Transfers to children and to parents performed comparably. The Author(s) 2020. Texting both parents and teachers resulted in a much smaller, statistically insignificant impact.

According to estimates from the Malala Fund, by 2025 more than 12 million girls will be at risk of not completing their education every year as a result of climate change. (2020) findusing a randomised controlled trial in Ugandathat simultaneously providing vocational training as well as information about reproductive health to adolescent girls increased self-employment and reduced adolescent pregnancy and sexual violence 4years later.

English, Similarly, a study in Kenya found that the abolition of tuition in public secondary schools increased access, delayed childbirth and did not reduce test scores (Brudevold-Newman, 2019).

Brunette et al. (2014) examine the impact of introducing animal protein into school meals in Kenya with a randomised trial and find that the meat group showed higher test score gains than other groups. (3ie Systematic Review 24). Mensah and Nsabimana (2020) exploit staggered implementation of a school feeding program in Rwanda and find small (less than 0.03 standard deviations) but significant impacts on student test scores. The journal databases searched included the American Economic Review, the Quarterly Journal of Economics, the Journal of Political Economy, the Journal of African Economies, World Development, the Economics of Education Review, the Journal of Development Effectiveness, the International Journal of Educational Development and the International Journal of Educational Research. The schools had a custom-made structured pedagogy program and frequent monitoring and assessment of teachers and students. Providing e-readers to secondary school students in urban Nigeria only increased learning if they included curricular content and were distributed in areas with limited textbook access, essentially substituting e-readers for traditional textbooks (Habyarimana and Sabarwal, 2018). In Unleashing the creativity of teachers and students to combat climate change, my co-author Christina Kwauk and I highlight a range of practices including climate action projects at schools that both help build community resilience, deepen students science learning, and allow them to practice applying academic knowledge to solve problems in the real world. Glewwe and Muralidharan (2016) also examine both access and learning, finding strong gains from improved pedagogyespecially for foundational literacy and numeracy skills, improved governanceincluding teacher accountability and cost reductions.

As a result, studies that report purely descriptive data or carried out a case study were not included in our primary analysis. As the committee is already well aware, ensuring all Africas children and youth have high-quality education opportunities that prepare them for the 21st century world we live in is not only the right thing to dochildren everywhere have a right to a quality educationbut is also the smart thing to do. An Experimental Comparison of Centralized Training and In-classroom Coaching, Can Public Rankings Improve School Performance? Some studies have multiple implementing partners (e.g., publicprivate partnerships that are implemented by both government and private partners). Adjusting for a set of observed student characteristics reduces the gains by a small amount. In Kenyan primary schools, interactive literacy software coupled with a library of digital books and stories boosted reading scores (Lysenko et al., 2019). I will never forget my experience as a SAMUN participant and how it shaped me into the Communications expert that I am today! (halshs-02179704; PSE Working Papers) HAL. Distinguishing the impact of private schools on student learning is generally difficult because of student selection effects: often, students with better off parents or parents more invested in education may be more likely to attend private schools. Eyal and Woodard (2014) find that expanding a child support grant in South Africa increased educational enrollment in South Africa but that higher enrollment does not translate into higher levels of attained education. We conducted the search between September 2019 and May 2020 and compiled a list of 195 papers eligible for review. Ultimately, construction is likely a necessary condition for other interventions to work when there are insufficient schools. Where Does Education Pay Off in Sub-Saharan Africa? With work in over 40 African partner countries, GPE puts country voices at the center of its model by supporting ministries of education to develop strong policies building on inclusive consultation with local and international organizations. Education technology interventions have decidedly mixed impacts, as do school grant programs and programs providing individual learning inputs (e.g., uniforms or textbooks).

The evaluation did not measure the impact relative to public schools. Climate change and its associated impact on weather and climate patterns widens inequality gaps in sub-Saharan Africa. (2019)with a simple cross-sectional regression approach and the selection challenges that entailsfind a significant, positive correlation between kindergarten attendance and later numeracy skill in South Africa, even when controlling for other current skills (language and executive function). Free basic education increased girls attainment and reduced adolescent fertility and marriage in Ghana and Uganda (Boahen and Yamauchi, 2018; Masuda and Yamauchi, 2018). Unlike a similar program in India, the program had no impact on dropout rates or grade advancement (Muralidharan and Prakash, 2017). In some ways, the financial resources are easier to come by at large scale than the human resources, especially in education systems that historically have had difficulty recruiting and training qualified workers.

Non-profit school providers are another option, especially in the context of extreme poverty and poor state provision of schooling. We also added studies known to the authors that are eligible but did not come up in the original search. Teachers also support these programs in Tanzania, both in theory and in practice, reporting higher levels of satisfaction in schools that have performance pay (Mbiti and Schipper, this issue). (, Ashraf, N., Bau, N., Low, C., and McGinn, K. (, Ashraf, N., Bau, N., Nunn, N., and Voena, A. We began by compiling a database of papers that complied with the above criteria from published systematic reviews such as Conn (2014), Glewwe et al. The USG has done some initial work in this area, particularly on disaster risk reduction, but it could play a much bigger role and exert real leadership in this area. (2015) use regression analysis to show that the introduction of school fees reduced enrollment and subsequent completion of primary school across seven African countries. (2018) compare test scores, costs and management practices across public and private schools in Lagos, Nigeria, and find that one international chain of private schools has higher student test scores relative to other private schools and public schools in literacy and relative to public schools only in mathematics. The program led to sizeable literacy gains. (, Baird, S., Hicks, J. H., Kremer, M., and Miguel, E. (, Baird, S., McIntosh, C., & zler, B. They do not observe impacts on labour force participation or employment. Primary and Lower Secondary Completion Rates across Regions in 2015 Source: Author tabulations using data from World Development Indicators (2020). Informal fees in public primary schools continue to keep studentsespecially poor, rural studentsaway from school (Sakaue, 2018). Five studies examine the quality of early child education services. Education Africa has helped foster meaningful change in South Africa and, through the commitment and dedication of James and the team, has provided a better future for thousands of young lives. Similarly, a mathematics-focused version of the program provided teacher guides and teacher professional development training and yielded statistically significant improvements in test scores (Piper et al., 2016a). (, Leaver C., Ozier O., Serneels P., Zeitlin A. Grants alone do not consistently solve access or learning problems, but when attached to conditions or complementary programs that relax other constraints, they can boost both access and learning. Other studies compare alternative programs to achieve a common goal, as in education subsidies versus the government HIV curriculum to reduce sexually transmitted infections in Duflo et al. Private schools are an important part of the education landscape in Sub-Saharan Africa. Even if one had those data, comparing costs across settings entails many of the same challenges that comparing effect sizes entails (Evans and Popova, 2016a). Many evaluations of interventions are at relatively small scale.

Demands for secondary education have grown in the region following the large push with the Millennium Development Goals for universal primary completion. This is a particular concern for the countries housing the largest numbers of young people. University preparation is important, but the main focus should be on flexible secondary education pathways that prepare young people for work. Evidence from a Nationwide Reform in Tanzania, Identifying Effective Education Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Meta-analysis of Impact Evaluations, School Management and PublicPrivate Partnerships in Uganda, From Evidence to Action: The Story of Cash Transfers and Impact Evaluation in Sub-Saharan Africa, Does Promoting School Attendance Reduce Child Labor? The elimination of primary school fees in Ethiopia led to more schooling for men and women, along with reduced fertility (Chicoine, 2019, 2020). But most interventions still lack any long-term follow-up. The majority of the interventions (72%) evaluated by the studies are administered through the school system, including interventions targeting teachers, school management and students, while only about 38% of the studies are targeted at the household level (Figure 8). Recent evidence from Africa supports that finding (Appendix Table 6). For studies that are not national in scale and that report schools as treatment units, we find an average treatment group size of 96 schools (median: 66 schools). Since then, several studies have come out, most of which examine the impact of access to early child education (Appendix Table 13). (, Sabates R., Bhutoria A., Sabates-Wheeler R., Devereux S. (, Snilstveit B., Stevenson J., Menon R., Philips D., Gallagher E., Geelen M., Jobse H., Schimdt T., Jimenez E. (, Snilstveit B., Stevenson J., Philips D., Vojtkova M., Gallagher E., Schmidt T., Jobse H., Geelen M., Pastorello M. G., Eyers J. A natural response to the array of evidence we have presented would be to point out that the benefit is just half of the investment decision. Conditional cash transfers in Tanzania boosted primary school completion (Evans et al., 2014). Le Nestour et al. For example, Mbiti et al.

Providing sanitary pads to schoolgirls in Kenya reduced absenteeism significantly (Benshaul-Tolonen et al., 2019). Bandiera et al. Arabic, Several recent studies suggest that mother tongue instruction has positive impacts on childrens ability to subsequently learn a second language in Cameroon (Laitin et al., 2019), Ethiopia (Seid, 2019) and South Africa (Taylor and von Fintel, 2016). Thirty years of Making real change Happen is no joke! (2015), Evans and Popova (2016b) and Evans and Yuan (2019). The past several years have seen some new work on private schools and publicprivate partnerships in Sub-Saharan Africa (Appendix Table 15). What do earlier syntheses say about education in Africa? (2016a) compare conditional cash transfers for already enrolled and unenrolled adolescent girls in Malawi: they find enrollment gains for both groups and mixed effects on test scores. The number of impact evaluations on the topic of education in development settings rose more in absolute numbers than in any other sector except health, both from 2000 to 2009 and from 2010 to 2015 (Sabet and Brown, 2018). A similar program in Tanzania had no impacts (Buehren et al., 2017). Appendix Section 1, Supplementary Material, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-014-9362-4, https://riseprogramme.org/sites/default/files/inline-files/Adeniran-Nigeria_learning_crisis.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2019.05.001, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/944741467047531083/Evidence-from-a-randomized-evaluation-of-the-household-welfare-impacts-of-conditional-and-unconditional-cash-transfers-given-to-mothers-or-fathers, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/540801550153933986/Measuring-Human-Capital, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2016.03.008, https://www.ifs.org.uk/uploads/Impact%20report_submitted.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2019.06.011, https://custom.cvent.com/4E741122FD8B4A1B97E483EC8BB51CC4/files/0e417a592b7f494abaa559eccf646ee3.pdf, https://www.mathematica.org/our-publications-and-findings/publications/imagine-report-english-june-2016, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2019.04.004, https://www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/pol.20170603, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/452451551361923106/The-Economic-Lives-of-Young-Women-in-the-Time-of-Ebola-Lessons-from-an-Empowerment-Program, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/113581538650102794/Facing-Forward-Schooling-for-Learning-in-Africa, https://ssir.org/articles/entry/the_generalizability_puzzle, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2017.10.020, http://documents1.worldbank.org/curated/en/184851585721598666/pdf/Strengthening-Teacher-Accountability-to-Reach-All-Students-STARS-Milestone-4-Impact-Analysis-Report.pdf, https://anjatolonen.files.wordpress.com/2019/03/cdep_absenteeism.pdf, https://janbietenbeck.com/BEW_preschools_preprint_no_OA.pdf, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/319421550087245992/Improving-Access-and-Quality-in-Early-Childhood-Development-Programs-Experimental-Evidence-from-The-Gambia, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/923441468191341801/Parental-human-capital-and-effective-school-management-evidence-from-The-Gambia, https://riseprogramme.org/sites/default/files/inline-files/PUGATCH.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2018.08.007, https://drive.google.com/file/d/0BwWpbm7dAutoRjRpWUJ5alRtOER, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/245071486474542369/Evaluation-of-an-adolescent-, development-program-for-girls-in-Tanzania, https://www.elsevier.com/books/handbook-of-the-economics-of-education/hanushek/978-0-444-51399-1, https://custom.cvent.com/4E741122FD8B4A1B97E483EC8BB51CC4/files/Event/ca4fa1845a194f7fa5fed5711b3c0a8f/ce84c22d75cd42748fd5feca3991f2a8.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2019.01.002, https://www.dropbox.com/s/6xmv7283oxoysj2/The%20Challenge%20of%20Sustaining%20Effective%20Teaching%20with%20appendix.pdf?dl=0, https://doi.org/10.3368/jhr.55.3.0618-9538R1, https://doi.org/10.3368/jhr.56.3.0119-9969R1, https://doi.org/10.4060/0b24b92e-5254-4d06-a317-84ccd6babe23, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2013.11.001, FD8B4A1B97E483EC8BB51CC4/files/dehoopt.pdf, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/720071529003623702/Incentivizing-school-attendance-in-the-presence-of-parent-child-information-frictions, https://warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/economics/research/centres/cage/manage/publications/450-2019_souza.pdf, https://ideas.repec.org/p/hal/psewpa/halshs-02179704.html, https://econpapers.repec.org/paper/tutcremwp/2018-09.htm, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2014.11.008, https://web.stanford.edu/~pdupas/DDK_GhanaScholarships.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1596/978-1-4648-0141-9, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.08.020, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/243741563805734157/What-We-Learn-about-Girls-Education-from-, https://www.cgdev.org/publication/how-big-are-effect-sizes-international-education-studies, https://www.cgdev.org/publication/are-teachers-africa-poorly-paid-evidence-15-countries, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/267391729_Cash_Transfers_and_Teen_Education_Evidence_from_South_Africa?channel=doiandlinkId=544e4c350cf29473161b8977andshow, https://novafrica.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/textbook-paper-May-19-2019-final-Lisbon-draft-clean.pdf, https://www.dropbox.com/s/is9sc8khliipbx3/Slides_Cycles%20%28Dec%202019%29.pdf?dl=0, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2020.101971, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/914561468314712643/Conditional-cash-transfers-reducing-present-and-future-poverty, https://doi.org/10.1080/09645292.2014.985287, https://doi.org/10.3368/jhr.57.1.1118-9871R2, https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-63459-7.00010-5, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/659331544, 105347027/Re-Kindling-Learning-eReaders-in-Lagos, https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114513003310, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-014-9342-9, https://doi.org/10.1080/09523987.2016.1254886, https://cepa.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/wp17-08-v201708.pdf, https://doi.org/10.35188/UNU-WIDER/2018/585-5, https://doi.org/10.1080/19345747.2016.1221487, https://doi.org/10.35188/UNU-WIDER/2015/906-0, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2017.06.002, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecresq.2019.01.002, http://conference.iza.org/conference_files/Gender_2019/koroknay-palicz_t25104.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2018.09.004, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2015.03.006, https://www.3ieimpact.org/evidence-hub/publications/working-papers/quality-education-all-children-what-works-education, https://doi.org/10.1080/13600818.2015.1110568, https://www.poverty-action.org/publication/recruitment-effort-and-retention-effects-performance-contracts-civil-servants, https://developmentevidence.3ieimpact.org/search-result-details/impact-evaluation-repository/the-impacts-of-interactive-smartboards-on-learning-achievement-in-senegalese-primary-schools/7721, https://www.dropbox.com/s/7ww4z0fy8i2a0sh/Arm_Wrestling_in_the_Classroom%20-%20July08.pdf?dl=0, https://www.opml.co.uk/files/Publications/8022-education-data-research-evaluation-nigeria-edoren/learning-in-lagos.pdf?noredirect=1, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2019.02.013, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/756171513961080112/Preschool-and-child-development-under-extreme-poverty-evidence-from-a-randomized-experiment-in-rural-Mozambique, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2015.11.012, http://hermes-ir.lib.hit-u.ac.jp/rs/bitstream/10086/29261/1/wp2018-4.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2015.02.001, https://custom.cvent.com/4E741122FD8B4A1B9, 7E483EC8BB51CC4/files/schoolfeedingandstudentperformanceinrwandabyaimablejustice.pdf, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2018.06.006, https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.hefe.2016.09.004, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2016.05.007, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2018.04.004, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/390321538076747773/Global-Dataset-on-Education-Quality-A-Review-and-Update-2000-2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2015.08.002, https://socialprotection.org/discover/publications/child-grants-programme-impact-evaluation, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2017.11.008, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10833-018-9325-4, https://doi.org/10.1080/18146627.2015.1036566, https://doi.org/10.1080/19439342.2016.1149502, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.01.018, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2016.03.006, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2017.10.002, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2014.02.006, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/349051535637296801/Teacher-Professional-Development-around-the-World-The-Gap-between-Evidence-and-Practice, https://www.routledge.com/Using-Evidence-in-Policy-and-Practice-Lessons-from-Africa/Goldman-Pabari/p/book/9780367440077, https://doi.org/10.1080/09645292.2018.1484426, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2014.04.003, https://doi.org/10.1080/19439342.2018.1452778, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.04.029, https://custom.cvent.com/4E741122FD8B4A1B97, https://www.cgdev.org/publication/beyond-short-term-learning-gains-impact-outsourcing-schools-liberia-after-three-years, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/806291468299200683/The-permanent-input-hypothesis-the-case-of-textbooks-and-no-student-learning-in-Sierra-Leone, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijer.2018.11.011, https://doi.org/10.1080/19439342.2018.1483414, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijedudev.2018.02.008, https://twitter.com/justinsandefur/status/1133923214030233600, https://editorialexpress.com/cgi-bin/conference/download.cgi?db_name=CSAE2018andpaper_id=71, https://doi.org/10.1080/00036846.2018.1497852, https://www.3ieimpact.org/sites/default/files/2019-05/srs7-education-report.pdf, https://developmentevidence.3ieimpact.org/search-result-details/systematic-review-repository/interventions-for-improving-learning-outcomes-and-access-to-education-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review/9097, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2016.01.003, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2019.101913, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/231391478194467051/Are-there-skills-payoffs-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-empirical-evidence-using-STEP-data, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2018.07.004, https://doi.org/10.1080/03057925.2014.938611, https://www.younglives.org.uk/content/early-investment-preschool-and-completion-secondary-education-ethiopia-lessons-young-lives, https://doi.org/10.1080/19345747.2018.1517199, https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/human-capital-index, https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/30498, https://databank.worldbank.org/source/world-development-indicators, https://doi.org/10.1080/03054985.2017.1391084, https://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentId=22953, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Contact the Centre for the Study of African Economies, Studies with cost-effectiveness analysis, Studies with quantitative discussion of costs (but not cost-effectiveness), Studies with other claims regarding cost (low-cost, affordable, etc.) The international community has characterised this situation as a learning crisis (World Bank, 2018a). Every place and time is different, and so synthesising effective results is not intended to promote wholesale adoption of one program to another context. The Effects of Universal Secondary Education Program Accompanying Public-Private Partnership on Students Access, Sorting and Achievement: Evidence from Uganda. declare garrett sandra recife rios julia siqueira fire line pe dinheiro oab squads death close advogada loyal thieves secrecy husband magic museum gangster cape town welcomes africa

Page not found - Supermarché Utile ARRAS
Sélectionner une page

Aucun résultat

La page demandée est introuvable. Essayez d'affiner votre recherche ou utilisez le panneau de navigation ci-dessus pour localiser l'article.