was libya safe under gaddafi


Gaddafi reportedly spent hundreds of millions of the government's money on training and arming Sandinistas in Nicaragua. On 19 October 1973, Libya was the first Arab nation to issue an oil embargo against the United States after US President Richard Nixon announced the US would provide Israel with a $2.2 billion military aid program during the Yom Kippur War. During the 1980s and 1990s, Gaddafi, in alliance with the Eastern Bloc and Fidel Castro's Cuba, openly supported rebel movements like Nelson Mandela's African National Congress, Yasser Arafat's Palestine Liberation Organization, the Provisional Irish Republican Army and the Polisario Front (Western Sahara). [40], Libya continued to be plagued with a shortage of skilled labor, which had to be imported along with a broad range of consumer goods, both paid for with petroleum income. [37], Following an abortive attempt to replace English foreign language education with Russian,[104] in recent years English has been taught in Libyan schools from a primary level, and students have access to English-language media. Even the U.S. could not protect dissidents from Libya. Libya's Five-Year Economic and Social Transformation Plan (197680), announced in 1975, was programmed to pump US$20 billion into the development of a broad range of economic activities that would continue to provide income after Libya's petroleum reserves had been exhausted. In late 1987 French authorities stopped a merchant vessel, the MV Eksund, which was delivering a 150-ton Libyan arms shipment to the IRA. [121] Eventually, the aircraft carriers USSEnterprise and Charles de Gaulle arrived off the coast and provided the enforcers with a rapid-response capability. The Free Officers Movement, which claimed credit for carrying out the coup, was headed by a twelve-member directorate that designated itself the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). In 1999, Libya fulfilled one of the UNSCR requirements by surrendering two Libyans suspected in connection with the bombing for trial before a Scottish court in the Netherlands.

He received various Western European leaders as well as many working-level and commercial delegations, and made his first trip to Western Europe in 15 years when he traveled to Brussels in April 2004. [53] However, Gaddafi focused on demanding Pakistan's Prime Minister sell him a nuclear weapon, which surprised many of the Prime Minister's delegation members and journalists. [72] Foday Sankoh, the founder of Revolutionary United Front, was also Gaddafi's graduate. Gaddafi remained commander in chief of the armed forces and effective head of state. [101], In 1994, the General People's Congress approved the introduction of "purification laws" to be put into effect, punishing theft by the amputation of limbs, and fornication and adultery by flogging. The government also built a trans-Sahara water pipeline from major aquifers to both a network of reservoirs and the towns of Tripoli, Sirte and Benghazi in 20062007. [57], In response to the discotheque bombing, joint US Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps air-strikes took place against Libya on 15 April 1986 and code-named Operation El Dorado Canyon and known as the 1986 bombing of Libya. The foreign minister, Salah Busir, played an important role in negotiating the British and American military withdrawal from the new republic. On 7 September 1969, the RCC announced that it had appointed a cabinet to conduct the government of the new republic. The word jamhryah was derived from jumhryah, which is the usual Arabic translation of "republic". This discontent mounted with the rise of Nasserism and Arab nationalism/socialism throughout North Africa and the Middle East. Libya had shifted, virtually overnight, from the camp of conservative Arab traditionalist states to that of the radical nationalist states. More-detailed information was retrieved years later when Stasi archives were investigated by the reunited Germany. Many nations condemned Gaddafi's government over its use of force against civilians. [8][9][10] The International Criminal Court issued an arrest warrant against Gaddafi and his entourage on 27 June 2011. Libya's role on the international stage grew less provocative after UN sanctions were imposed. [76] On 1 February 2009, a 'coronation ceremony' in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, was held to coincide with the 53rd African Union Summit, at which he was elected head of the African Union for the year. In view of the lack of internal resistance, it appeared that the chief danger to the new government lay in the possibility of a reaction inspired by the absent King Idris or his designated heir, Hasan Al-Rida, who had been taken into custody at the time of the coup along with other senior civil and military officials of the royal government. Gadaffi's full title was "Brotherly Leader and Guide to the First of September Great Revolution of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya". Gaddafi's plan was intercepted by several national intelligence agencies and more detailed information was retrieved four years later from Stasi archives.

Neither of the officers was a member of the RCC. Communications intercepted by MI5 show that Tripoli ordered its diplomats to direct violence against the demonstrators. In Darfur, a western province of Sudan, Gaddafi supported the creation of the Arab Gathering (Tajammu al-Arabi), which according to Grard Prunier was "a militantly racist and pan-Arabist organization which stressed the 'Arab' character of the province. [67][68] Over the years, Gaddafi came to be seen as a hero in much of Africa due to his revolutionary image. Jamahiriya (Arabic: jamhryah) is an Arabic term generally translated as "state of the masses"; Lisa Anderson[35] has suggested "peopledom" or "state of the masses" as a reasonable approximations of the meaning of the term as intended by Gaddafi. [37][83][84][86][91], In Indonesia, the Free Aceh Movement was a Libyan-backed militant group. In April 1984, Libyan refugees in London protested against execution of two dissidents. In 1970, a law was introduced affirming equality of the sexes and insisting on wage parity. Several other nations allied with Gaddafi called the uprising and intervention a "plot" by Western powers to loot Libya's resources. A renewed serious threat to the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya came in February 2011, with the Libyan Civil War. Official rhetoric disdained the idea of a nation state, tribal bonds remaining primary, even within the ranks of the national army.[34]. [63], Gaddafi also aided Jean-Bdel Bokassa, the Emperor of the Central African Empire. [15], Major Abdel Salam Jallud, generally regarded as second only to Gaddafi in the RCC, became deputy prime minister and minister of interior. This naval action was a result of claiming the territory and losses from the previous incident. [124], Political scientist Riadh Sidaoui suggested in October 2011 that Gaddafi "has created a great void for his exercise of power: there is no institution, no army, no electoral tradition in the country", and as a result, the period of transition would be difficult in Libya. [51][55] Inspectors from the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) verified in 2004 that Libya owned a stockpile of 23 metric tons of mustard gas and more than 1,300 metric tons of precursor chemicals.[56]. [42], As early as 1969, Gaddafi waged a campaign against Chad.

The term does not occur in this sense in Muammar Gaddafi's Green Book of 1975. However, in Hebrew, for instance, jamhryah is translated as "" (qehiliyh), a word also used to translate the term "Commonwealth" when referring to the designation of a country. Gaddafi defended his government's actions by citing the need to support anti-imperialist and anti-colonial movements around the world. While the other Arab nations lifted their oil embargoes on 18 March 1974,[18] the Gaddafi regime refused to do so. [37], During the late 1970s, some exiled Libyans[who?] [96], Gaddafi developed a relationship with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, becoming acquainted with its leaders in meetings of revolutionary groups regularly hosted in Libya. The latter joined those already alienated, some of whom had begun to leave the country. In turn, all adults had the right and duty to participate in the deliberation of their local Basic People's Congress (BPC), whose decisions were passed up to the GPC for consideration and implementation as national policy. [66] One of Mandela's grandsons is named Gaddafi, an indication of the latter's support in South Africa. This step gave Libya control of about 60 percent of its domestic oil production by early 1974, a figure that subsequently rose to 70 percent. He reacted to these threats on one hand by maintaining a careful balance of power between the forces in the country, and by brutal repression on the other. In August 1984, one Libyan plot was thwarted in Mecca. Although a large percentage of those charged were acquitted, sentences of up to fifteen years in prison and heavy fines were imposed on others. [22] On 22 July 1976, the Libyan government made a public threat to break diplomatic relations with Cairo if Egyptian subversive actions continued. "[46] The two organizations shared members and a source of support, and the distinction between them is often ambiguous. Analysts were quick to point out the striking similarities between the Libyan military coup of 1969 and that in Egypt under Nasser in 1952, and it became clear that the Egyptian experience and the charismatic figure of Nasser had formed the model for the Free Officers Movement. Within a few months, such committees were found all across Libya. Patass signed a deal giving Libya a 99-year lease to exploit all of that country's natural resources, including uranium, copper, diamonds, and oil.[65]. The increase in production that followed the 1969 revolution was accompanied by Libyan demands for higher petroleum prices, a greater share of revenues, and more control over the development of the country's petroleum industry. [67] Gaddafi funded Mandela's 1994 election campaign, and after taking office as the country's first democratically elected president in 1994, Mandela rejected entreaties from U.S. President Bill Clinton and others to cut ties with Gaddafi. [53], Thailand reported its citizens had helped build storage facilities for nerve gas. Gaddafi successfully balanced the various tribes of Libya one against the other by distributing his favours. By mid-1973 estimates of the number of people's committees ranged above 2,000. [63][64] He also intervened militarily in the restored Central African Republic during the 2001 coup attempt, to protect his ally Ange-Flix Patass. [59] Al-Rukn members were arrested in 1986 for preparing strikes on behalf of Libya, including blowing up US government buildings and bringing down an airplane; the Al-Rukn defendants were convicted in 1987 of "offering to commit bombings and assassinations on US soil for Libyan payment. Some Libyan officials had sided with the protesters and requested help from the international community to bring an end to the massacres of civilians. Gaddafi's government was overthrown in the wake of the fall of Tripoli to the rebel forces on 20 August 2011, although pockets of resistance held by forces in support of Gaddafi's government held out for another two months, especially in Gaddafi's hometown of Sirte, which he declared the new capital of Libya on 1 September 2011. Following the formation of the Libyan Arab Republic, Gaddafi and his associates insisted that their government would not rest on individual leadership, but rather on collegial decision making. Army units quickly rallied in support of the coup, and within a few days firmly established military control in Tripoli and elsewhere throughout the country. The first major cabinet change occurred soon after the first challenge to the government. [107] Prisons were run with little or no documentation of inmate population, and often neglected even such basic data as a prisoner's crime and sentence. The surgical strikes failed to kill Gaddafi but he lost a few dozen military officers. The surveillance took place in government, in factories, and in the education sector. The novelist Idris Al-Mesmari was arrested hours after giving an interview with Al Jazeera about the police reaction to protests in Benghazi on 15 February.

[18] Saudi Arabia and other Arab oil producing nations in OPEC would follow suit the next day.[18]. In the 1970s and the 1980s, this support was sometimes so freely given that even the most unsympathetic groups could obtain Libyan support; often the groups represented ideologies far removed from Gaddafi's own. US fighter jets and fighter-bombers destroyed SAM launching facilities and sank various naval vessels, killing 35 seamen. Agriculture was slated to receive the largest share of aid in an effort to make Libya self-sufficient in food and to help keep the rural population on the land. [109] A defector was kidnapped and executed in 1990 just before he was about to receive U.S. [106], According to the 2009 Freedom of the Press Index, Libya was the most censored country in the Middle East and North Africa. reporters threatened libya [61], Gaddafi was a close supporter of Ugandan President Idi Amin. It abolished parliamentary institutions, all legislative functions being assumed by the RCC, and continued the prohibition against political parties, in effect since 1952. [115] In the east, the National Transitional Council was established in Benghazi. [26] On 24 July, the combatants agreed to a ceasefire under the mediation of the President of Algeria Houari Boumedine and the Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat. At his own request and with Nasser's approval, Idris took up residence once again in Egypt, where he had spent his first exile and where he remained until his death in 1983. On the 7 April 1977 anniversary of the event, students including Omar Dabob and Muhammed Ben Saoud were publicly executed in Benghazi and anti-Gaddafi military officers were executed later in the week. Gaddafi's agents were active in the UK, where many Libyans had sought asylum. In reality, the revolutionary committees were used to survey the population and repress any political opposition to Gaddafi's autocratic rule. In December, the Libyan government suddenly nationalized the holdings of British Petroleum in Libya and withdrew funds amounting to approximately US$550 million invested in British banks as a result of a foreign policy dispute. Gaddafi employed his network of diplomats and recruits to assassinate dozens of his critics around the world. Gaddafi's approach often tended to confuse international opinion. [15] After the plot was foiled, a substantial cabinet change occurred, RCC officers for the first time forming a majority among new ministers.[15]. This body constituted the Libyan government after the coup. By the late 1970s, the result was an unnecessarily complex system of overlapping jurisdictions in which cooperation and coordination among different elements were compromised by ill-defined authority and responsibility. [84], In New Zealand, Libya attempted to radicalize Moris. In retaliation for accusations by the Egyptian government of Libyan complicity in the hijacking, the Libyan government ordered the closure of the Egyptian Consulate in Benghazi. The instrument for doing this was the people's committee. After the September coup, U.S. forces proceeded deliberately with the planned withdrawal from Wheelus Air Base under the agreement made with the previous government. As a consequence, Libya was more ready to ration output in order to conserve its natural wealth and less responsive to moderating its price-rise demands than the other countries. The centerpiece of the new system was the General People's Congress (GPC), a national representative body intended to replace the RCC. A French journalist, speaking of the Legion's forces in Chad, observed that they were "foreigners, Arabs or Africans, mercenaries in spite of themselves, wretches who had come to Libya hoping for a civilian job, but found themselves signed up more or less by force to go and fight in an unknown desert. This Islamic Legion was mostly composed of immigrants from poorer Sahelian countries,[47] but also, according to a source, thousands of Pakistanis who had been recruited in 1981 with the false promise of civilian jobs once in Libya.

The foreign press speculated about an eclipse of his authority and personality within the RCC, but Gaddafi soon dispelled such theories by his measures to restructure Libyan society. As a result, although Gaddafi held no formal government office after 1979, he retained control of the government and the country.

One of these suspects, Abdel Basset al-Megrahi, was found guilty; the other was acquitted. Violent counter demonstrations took place and many students were imprisoned. But according to volume two of Gaddafi's Green Book, which appeared in 1978, private retail trade, rent, and wages were forms of exploitation that should be abolished. The Egyptian government also gave assistance to former RCC members Major Abd al Munim al Huni and Omar Muhayshi, who unsuccessfully tried to overthrow Gaddafi in 1975, and allowed them to reside in Egypt. A new General People's Committee (cabinet) was selected, each of its "secretaries" becoming head of a specialized people's committee; the exceptions were the "secretariats" of petroleum, foreign affairs, and heavy industry, where there were no people's committees. Gaddafi also became a strong supporter of the Palestine Liberation Organization, which support ultimately harmed Libya's relations with Egypt, when in 1979 Egypt pursued a peace agreement with Israel. [92], In 1986, Libyan state television announced that Libya was training suicide squads to attack American and European interests.

[97] In Britain, Gaddafi's best-known political subsidiary is the Workers Revolutionary Party.

In an attempt to instill revolutionary fervor into his compatriots and to involve large numbers of them in political affairs, Gaddafi urged them to challenge traditional authority and to take over and run government organs themselves. He began financing the IRA again in 1986, to retaliate against the British for harboring American fighter planes. They oversaw the "revolutionary committees", which were nominally grass-roots organizations that helped keep the people engaged. [60], Gaddafi announced that he had won a spectacular military victory over the US and the country was officially renamed the "Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriyah". Petroleum was seen both as a means of financing the economic and social development of a woefully underdeveloped country and as a political weapon to brandish in the Arab struggle against Israel. Gaddafi's government was either known to be or suspected of participating in or aiding attacks by these and other proxy forces. From the start, RCC spokesmen had indicated a serious intent to bring the "defunct regime" to account. [99] Vanuatu's ruling party enjoyed Libyan support. [37], Gaddafi asserted in June 1984 that killings could be carried out even when the dissidents were on pilgrimage in the holy city of Mecca. The prolonged foray of Libyan troops into the Aozou Strip in northern Chad, was finally repulsed in 1987, when extensive US and French help to Chadian rebel forces and the government headed by former Defence Minister Hissein Habr finally led to a Chadian victory in the so-called Toyota War. Although they were not official government organs, the revolutionary committees became another mainstay of the domestic political scene.

[48] Generally speaking, the Legion's members were immigrants who had gone to Libya with no thought of fighting wars, and had been provided with inadequate military training and had sparse commitment. As with the people's committees and other administrative innovations since the revolution, the revolutionary committees fit the pattern of imposing a new element on the existing subnational system of government rather than eliminating or consolidating already existing structures. After killings by government forces[6] in addition to those by the rebel forces,[7] a multinational coalition led by NATO forces intervened on 21 March 2011 in support of the rebels. [73][74][75] His 2009 forum for African kings was canceled by the Ugandan hosts, who believed that traditional rulers discussing politics would lead to instability. Libyan diplomats shot at 11 people and killed British policewoman Yvonne Fletcher. [81][82] In 1976 after a series of terror activities by the Provisional IRA, Gaddafi announced that "the bombs which are convulsing Britain and breaking its spirit are the bombs of Libyan people. [84][95][96], In the 1980s, the Libyan government purchased advertisements in Arabic-language newspapers in Australia asking for Australian Arabs to join the military units of his worldwide struggle against imperialism. In early 2011, a civil war broke out in the context of the wider "Arab Spring". As months passed, Gaddafi, caught up in his apocalyptic visions of revolutionary Pan-Arabism and Islam locked in mortal struggle with what he termed the encircling, demonic forces of reaction, imperialism, and Zionism, increasingly devoted attention to international rather than internal affairs. He also attacked regional and tribal differences as obstructions in the path of social advancement and Arab unity, dismissing traditional leaders and drawing administrative boundaries across tribal groupings. Libya put several left-wing unions on the Libyan payroll, such as the Food Preservers Union (FPU) and the Federated Confectioners Association of Australia (FCA)[citation needed]. citizenship. The Free Officers Movement was renamed "Arab Socialist Union" (ASU) in 1971, modeled after Egypt's Arab Socialist Union, and made the sole legal party in Gaddafi's Libya. Despite the variations of the stories, the campaign was successful, and a large proportion of the Western press reported the government's stories as facts. UN Security Council resolutions (UNSCRs) passed in 1992 and 1993 obliged Libya to fulfill requirements related to the Pan Am 103 bombing before sanctions could be lifted, leading to Libya's political and economic isolation for most of the 1990s.

It also made clear Libya's dedication to Arab unity and to the support of the Palestinian cause against Israel. Libyan agents who had carried out the operation from the Libyan embassy in East Germany were prosecuted by reunited Germany in the 1990s. We have sent them to the Irish revolutionaries so that the British will pay the price for their past deeds". The full lifting of the sanctions, contingent on Libya's compliance with the remaining UNSCRs, including acceptance of responsibility for the actions of its officials and payment of appropriate compensation, was passed 12 September 2003, explicitly linked to the release of up to $2.7 billion in Libyan funds to the families of the 1988 attack's 270 victims.
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