where is alexandria in the bible


Yet even when Alexandria was captured by the Arabs (641) under the caliph Omar, the general could report: "I have taken a city containing 4,000 palaces and 4,000 baths and 400 theaters."

The most appalling tragedy of this kind occurred in 415 when Hypatia, the virgin philosopher, celebrated equally for beauty, virtue and learning, was dragged by a mob to the cathedral, stripped, and torn to pieces before the altar. rhetoric intended to oppose a specific position, Restoration of Judah1But the Lord will have compassion on Jacob and will again choose Israel, and will set them in their own land; and aliens will join them an View more, 30Go say to them, Return to your tents.. A mode of writing, reading, or interpreting that operates on a symbolic, rather than literal, level. Under Ptol. Copyright 2022, Society of Biblical Literature VI and Cleopatra the two generals-in-chief of the royal army were Jews. clement alexandria st saints catholic facts 332, who himself traced the ground plan of the city. Attempts by scholars to demonstrate systematic, ideologically motivated changes in the Septuagint, however, are difficult to support based on the evidence. Luke twice speaks of himself and Paul sailing in "a ship of Alexandria" (Acts 27:6; Acts 28:11). The designation "Old Testament" places this part of the canon in relation to the New Testament, the part of the Bible canonical only to Christians.

Oppression of Jews and heretics was not, however, forbidden and during the 5th and 6th centuries. Wisdom and many other influential writings of the Jews originated in Alexandria. The magnificent ancient library of Alexandria collected all the Greek books of its time and also had a quite a significant connection with the origins of the Septuagint (Greek Bible). Jews who live outside of Israel or any people living outside of their native land. At one time it is said that as many as 10,000 Jews resided in this city. For many of them, Greek was the everyday language, not Hebrew, so the original biblical text was less accessible. It is difficult to overestimate the influence of the latter upon religious thought. Philos method influenced early Christian commentators such as Clement (circa 150-215 C.E.) Hebrew is regarded as the spoken language of ancient Israel but is largely replaced by Aramaic in the Persian period. Influence on Philosophy:Though no department of philosophy was established in the Museum, nevertheless from the 3rd century B.C. It was, however, not all translated at one time. Jewish document considered part of the Pseudepigrapha and dealing mostly with the circumstances and rationale for the creation of the Septuagint, a Hellenistic Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible. History:In 331 B.C., Alexander the Great, on his way to visit the Oracle of Amon seeking divine honors, stopped at the West extremity of the Delta at the isle of Pharos the landing-place of Odysseus (Od. Serapis (Osiris-Apis) was the best beloved of all the native deities. onward), the city also featured one of the largest Jewish communities in the Mediterranean and is traditionally believed to be the place where the Septuagint (ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures) was produced. "For a long period Alexandria was the greatest of known cities." Here the Jew acknowledged that Athens as truly as Jerusalem had taught a vision of God. It sank lower when Cairo became the capital (circa 1000 A.D.), and received its death blow when a sea route to India was discovered by way of the Cape of Good Hope (circa 1500).Today the ancient Alexandria lies entirely under the sea or beneath some later construction. An authoritative collection of texts generally accepted as scripture. On the other hand literature and art flourished under the careful protection of the court. He was an eloquent man, well-versed in the scriptures. This is called the Septuagint (70) version, from the tradition that seventy learned men were engaged in executing it. It was in furtherance of this general policy that the Jews in Alexandria were given special privileges, and though probably not possessing full civic rights, yet they "occupied in Alexandria a more Influential position than anywhere else in the ancient world" (Jewish Encyclopedia). This was the first attempt to form a universal religion.The Alexandrian philosophy was the Elijah to prepare the way for a Saviour of the world. Could it have served a polemical function in debates with Jewish authors? 11Three months later we set sail on a ship that had wintered at the island, an Alexandrian ship with the Twin Brothers as its figurehead. | Technical Support Excavations by the English (1895) and Germans (1898-99) have yielded few results, though Dr. G. Botti discovered the Serapeum and some immense catacombs, and only recently (1907) some fine sphinxes. It was the residence of the kings of Egypt for 200 years. 200 or 150. Allegorical interpretation of the Jewish Bible in Alexandria has its roots in Greek interpretations of the Iliad and the Odyssey as a strategy for making the ancient text speak to ever-changing cultural concerns and for resolving perceived conflicts in the text.

| Donate, https://www.bibleodyssey.org:443/en/places/main-articles/alexandria, Allegorical Readers and Cultural Revision in Ancient Alexandria, Jewish Exegesis and Homeric Scholarship in Alexandria, When God Spoke Greek: The Septuagint and the Making of the Christian Bible, Resources for the study of the Greek translations of the Hebrew Bible, Translations of Clement of Alexandrias works online. This position of supremacy was maintained during the Roman domination up to the 5th century during which Alexandria began to decline.

According to the common legend, St. Mark first "preached the gospel in Egypt, and founded the first church in Alexandria." After Rome became the chief city of the world, Alexandria ranked second to Rome in wealth and importance, and second to Athens only in literature and science. The victory of Heraclius over the Persians (629 A.D.) was followed by such a massacre of the Jews that the Coptics of Egypt still denominate the first week in Lent as the "Fast of Heraclius." Because the term "Old Testament" assumes a distinctly Christian perspective, many scholars prefer to use the more neutral "Hebrew Bible," which derives from the fact that the texts of this part of the canon are written almost entirely in Hebrew. Caird, Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904); Pfleiderer, Philosophy and Development of Religion (1894); Schaff, History of Christian Church (1884-1910); Zogheb, Etudes sur l'ancienne Alexandrie (1909).Camden M. Cobern. 9Then some of those who belonged to the synagogue of the Freedmen (as it was called), Cyrenians, Alexandrians, and others of those from Cilicia and Asia, stood View more. Here Neo-Pythagoreanism arose. Here Neo-Platonism, that contemplative and mystical reaction against the materialism of the Stoics, reached its full flower. When the Christians reached political power they used the same methods of controversy, wrecking the Caesarion in 366 and the Serapeum twenty-five years later. The work thus begun was continued after the death of Alexander by the Ptolemies. (2) The Septuagint, translated in Alexandria (3rd to 2nd centuries B.C. Here for the first time is seen a school of science and literature, adequately endowed and offering large facilities for definite original research. Its population was mixed from the first. Its collection of books grew to be the greatest library of ancient times, and contained at one time 700,000 rolls or volumes. Under the protection of the first two Ptolemies and Euergetes Alexandria reached its highest prosperity, receiving through Lake Mareotis the products of Upper Egypt, reaching by the Great Sea all the wealth of the West, while through the Red Sea its merchant vessels brought all the treasures of India and Arabia into the Alexandria docks without once being unladen.The manufactories of Alexandria were extensive, the greatest industry however being shipbuilding, the largest merchant ships of the world and battleships capable of carrying 1,000 men, which could hurl fire with fearful effect, being constructed here. used this Greek version exclusively in his commentaries, and he expanded the legend in the Letter of Aristeas by claiming that the 72 translators had worked independently but produced identical Greek translations (Moses 2.25-44). Satellite view of the modern Library of Alexandria (Bibliotheca Alexandrina), containing 8 million books, 4 museums and a planetarium. There the centurion found an Alexandrian ship sailing for Italy, and he put us aboard it. The city still bears the same name and is a thriving metropolis, with inhabitants from nearly every European and Oriental nation. Apollos, eloquent and mighty in the Scriptures, was a native of this city (Acts 18:24). It may have been a good thing that the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes (2nd century B.C.) In the later Hellenistic and Roman periods, large numbers of Jews were living outside the traditional Jewish homeland as part of the Diaspora. Doubtless numbers of the recently discovered documents from the Cairo genizah came originally from Alexandria. ALEX'ANDRIAN, noun Pertaining to Alexandria. The story that the Arabs burned it in the 7th century is discredited and seemingly disproved (Butler). Today Alexandria has again become a Christian metropolis containing Coptics, Romans, Greeks, Armenians, Maronites, Syrians, Chaldeans and Protestants. Neo-Platonism was the "germ out of which Christian theology sprang" (Caird) though later it became an adverse force. Alexandria possessed a famous and extremely important library of 700,000 volumes, which was burned by the Saracens (A.D. 642). It was here that the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek. The Persians and Turks write for Alexander, Scander, or Sconder; and for Alexandria, Scanderona; hence Scanderoon, a sea port in Syria. It was, however, not all translated at one time. The ancient metropolis of Lower Egypt, so called from its founder, Alexander the Great (about B.C. It was the residence of the kings of Egypt for 200 years. This new religion obtained phenomenal success. According to Josephus Alexander himself assigned to the Jews a place in his new city. Alexandrian Jews immediately received this translation as having full authority and condemned anyone who would try to alter it, and there is no question about its impact on Diaspora Jews. There are many cities of this name, in various parts of the earth. Only the simple remain mired in literalistic readings, he thought. For example, into the diatribe against the king of Babylon in Isa 14 translators inserted references to Antiochus IV Epiphanes (ruled 175-164 B.C.E. Since the eighteenth century, Bible scholars have divided the textual sources for the New Testament, primarily Greek manuscripts, into textual groupings, or text types, such as Alexandrian, Western, and Byzantine. the Jewish colonists of Alexandria, who were admitted to the privileges of citizenship and had a synagogue at Jerusalem. Even secret allegiance to Serapis brought persecution and sometimes death. Situation . Apollos, the "orator," was born in Alexandria (Acts 18:24). Some Greek philosophers and grammarians used a method of literary interpretation called allegory to defend or explain problematic accounts in Homers epics. Its importance as one of the chief corn-ports of Rome secured for it the general favor of the first emperors. (See VERSION.). Then for 1,000 years the Egyptian church remained without perceptible influence on culture or theology. It was begun B.C. It was named after its founder, Alexander the Great (about B.C. These direct references are few, but the influence of Alexandria on the Bible was inestimable. Plato was numbered among the prophets. But some men from what was called the Synagogue of the Freedmen, including both Cyrenians and Alexandrians, and some from Cilicia and Asia, rose up and argued with Stephen. Of or related to the written word, especially that which is considered literature; literary criticism is a interpretative method that has been adapted to biblical analysis. At the close of the 18th century. The mechanism of the lunar phases was perfectly understood, and careful though not wholly successful calculations were made of inter-sidereal distances. to the 6th century A.D. it was the center of gravity in the philosophic world. The world's largest Christian church organization administered by hierarchy made up of a single pope and a network of cardinals, bishops, priests, and renunciates (such as nuns and monks). A Jewish philosopher who lived from roughly 20 B.C.E. [cited 21 Jul 2022]. By the days of Augustus a Council of Elders (gerusia) had control, presided over by 71 archons. The school was closed toward the end of the 4th century because of theological disturbances in Egypt, but its work was continued from Caesarea and other centers, affecting profoundly Western teachers like Jerome and Ambrose, and completely dominating Eastern thought. It is Egyptian even in trifles. Here Euclid wrote his Elements of Geometry; here Archimedes, "that greatest mathematical and inventive genius of antiquity," made his spectacular discoveries in hydrostatics and hydraulics; here Eratosthenes calculated the size of the earth and made his other memorable discoveries; while Ptolemy studied here for 40 years and published an explanation of the stellar universe which was accepted by scientists for 14 centuries, and established mathematical theories which are yet the basis of trigonometry. From the first there was a mystical and Docetic tendency visible, while its views of inspiration and methods of interpretation, including its constant assumption of a secret doctrine for the qualified initiate, came legitimately from Neo-Platonism. "Critical" religious scholarship contrasts with popular and sectarian studies. The Jews in Alexandria:Among the private papers of Alexander it is said a sketch was found outlining his vast plan of making a Greek empire which should include all races as harmonious units. Similarly, in Deuteronomy geographical references are updated, and Moses at one point tells the people to return to your houses (Deut 5:30, NETS), instead of return to your tents as in the Hebrew text. Perhaps its most visible influence was in the encouragement of image-reverence and asceticism. Some time in the third century BCE, a Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures (initially just the Torah) was begun in Alexandria. Euergetes is said to have sent to Athens for the works of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, etc., and when these were transcribed, sent back beautiful copies to Greece and kept the originals! It is suggestive that the first hermit (Anthony) was a native Egyptian, and the first founder of a convent (Pachomius) was a converted Egyptian (heathen) monk. The Jews possessed many synagogues in their own district and in Philo's day these were not confined to any one section of the city. This is called the Septuagint version, from the tradition that seventy learned men were engaged in executing it. In Alexandria, Philo applied this method to interpreting the Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures. Of or relating to Greek culture, especially ancient Greece after Alexander the Great. Apollos, eloquent and mighty in the Scriptures, was a native of this city (Acts 18:24). He was followed by Clement (202) and by Origen (232) under whom the school reached its zenith. Or did he simply desire to work out a best text for his own sermons and commentaries? 280, and finished about B.C. Although Origen was one of the most important. I had 30,000 Jewish soldiers, in his army, whose barracks have only recently been discovered. The Sinaiticus and Vaticanus uncials with many other most important Bible manuscripts-Hebrew, Greek, Coptic and Syriac-came from Alexandria.

By the time of Jesus, the entirety of the Hebrew Scriptures was translated and widely read in Greek. The citys lighthouse (or Pharos) was considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. He produced numerous allegorical commentaries on the Pentateuch, with particular emphasis on Genesis and Exodus. 285, especially in grain, was very great. 24Now there came to Ephesus a Jew named Apollos, a native of Alexandria. Thus, for most early Christians, their Old Testament was the Septuagint. An observatory, an anatomical laboratory and large botanical and Zoological gardens were available. An early (second-century B.C.E.) Celebrated scholars, members of the various faculties, were domiciled within the halls of the Museum and received stipends or salaries from the government.The study of mathematics, astronomy, poetry and medicine was especially favored (even vivisection upon criminals being common); Alexandrian architects were sought the world over; Alexandrian inventors were almost equally famous; the influence of Alexandrian art can still be marked in Pompeii and an Alexandrian painter was a hated rival of Apelles.

Alexandria's Influence on the Bible:(1) In Daniel 11 the Ptolomies of Alexandria and their wives are made a theme of prophecy. Many Jews from Alexandria were in Jerusalem, where they had a synagogue (Acts 6:9), at the time of Stephen's martyrdom. All famous books brought into Egypt were sent to the library to be copied.The statement of Josephus that Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-247) requested the Jews to translate the Old Testament into Greek is not incredible. Also called the Hebrew Bible, those parts of the canon that are common to both Jews and Christians. Caird). He is the author of Paul the Martyr: The Cult of the Apostle in the Latin West (Society of Biblical Literature and Brill, 2011) and The Deaths of the Apostles: The Ancient Martyrdom Accounts of Peter and Paul (SBL Press, 2015). A Macedonian (Greek) general who conquered the Persians and ruled over a vast empire, from Greece to the Indus River, in the 330s B.C.E. This Greek Bible not only opened for the first time the "Divine Oracles" to the Gentiles and thus gave to the Old Testament an international influence, but it affected most vitally the Hebrew and Christian development. Philo, Clement, and Origen are the founders of the tradition of allegorical reading of the Bible that developed in Alexandria between the first and the third centuries C.E. Each district had a practically independent political government.The Jews were at first ruled by a Hebrew ethnarch. the future of the city as the commercial metropolis of the world was assured and here the golden casket of the conqueror was placed in a fitting mausoleum. After the Arab conquest the Coptic church, being released from persecution, prospered and gained many converts even from the Mohammedans.But the Saracenic civilization and religion steadily displaced the old, and the native learning and native religion soon disappeared into the desert. Some sixty letters of the 4th century written to a Christian cavalry officer in the Egyptian army are also preserved, while papyri and ostraca from circa 600 A.D. show that at this time no deacon could be ordained without having first learned by heart as much as an entire Gospel or 25 Psalms and two epistles of Paul, while a letter from a bishop of this period is filled with Scripture, as he anathematizes the "oppressor of the poor," who is likened unto him who spat in the face of our Lord on the cross and smote Him on the head (Adolph Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, etc., 1910). The oldest autographic Christian letter known (3rd century) proves that at that time the church was used as a bank, and its ecclesiastics (who, whether priests or bishops, were called "popes") were expected to help the country merchants in their dealings with the Roman markets. It was here that the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek. an early Christian writer who lived in the secondthird centuries CE. The next morning the city was evacuated and Jews and Coptics received better treatment from the Arabs than they had from the Roman or Greek ecclesiastics. At one time it is said that as many as 10,000 Jews resided in this city. At the end of three months we set sail on an Alexandrian ship which had wintered at the island, and which had the Twin Brothers for its figurehead. (from Alexander), 3 Ma 3.1; (Acts 18:24; 6:9) the Hellenic, Roman and Christian capital of Egypt. It possessed a famous library of 700,000 volumes, which was burned by the Saracens (A.D. 642).

During the Roman supremacy the rights of the Jews were maintained, except during their persecution for a brief period by the insane Caligula, and the control of the most important industries, including the corn trade, came into their hands.When Christianity became the state religion of Egypt the Jews at once began to be persecuted. Lowercase ("orthodox"), this term means conforming with the dominant, sanctioned ideas or belief system. in the customary version to raise a riot (Expos, VII, 75).Some curious relics of the early Egyptian church have very recently come to light. (4) John and several other New Testament writings have justly been regarded as showing the influence of this philosophic city. The city was about fifteen miles in circumference (Pliny), and when looked at from above represented a Macedonian cloak, such as was worn by Alexander's heroic ancestors. Some details in the translation seem to reveal the Hellenistic, urban context of the translators, in contrast to the earlier contexts of the Hebrew texts. A gospel is an account that describes the life of Jesus of Nazareth. Under the khedives it has recently gained something of its old importance and numbers now 320,000, of whom 46,000 are Europeans, chiefly Greeks (Baedeker, Handbook, 1902; Murray, Handbook, 1907).2. It soon became the political capital of Egypt and a center of Hellenistic culture, featuring one of the greatest libraries of the ancient world. In the Greek section were situated the palaces of the Ptolemies, the Library and Museum. and Origen. Six different versions of the Old Testament in Hebrew and Greek in parallel in one book, first compiled by Origen in the hird century C.E. 333). For Permission to Quote Information visit http://www.lockman.org. During the 4th century, ten councils were held in Alexandria, it being theological and ecclesiastical center of Christendom. It always stood for the philosophical vindication of Christianity. Philo estimated the number of the Alexandrine Jews in his time at a little less than 1,000,000 and adds that two of the five districts of Alexandria were called "Jewish districts," and that many Jews lived scattered in the remaining three. Alexandria was the second-most important city in the Roman Empire, after Rome itself. Some of the greatest Christian leaders used all their influence against such atrocities, but the Egyptian Christians were always noted for their excitability. Alexandria was a city in which Greek and Jewish cultures intermingled, and this had a profound impact on the development and interpretation of biblical texts.
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